Assessing local-scale inclusive wealth: a case study of Sado Island, Japan

Abstract

Present trends of urbanization are accompanied by increasing demographic and economic shrinkage of rural regions. In countries such as Japan, these rural regions trail behind metropolitan counterparts according to GDP, the conventional measure used to guide governmental policies. Yet, past research suggests that these regions may be undervalued. Further, the Inclusive Wealth Index (IWI), largely only used at the national level, may be able to capture aspects previously missed. As such, our study attempts to highlight the wealth of rural regions by comparing the inclusive wealth of Sado Island and Japan between 1990 and 2014. Minor methodological modifications were made according to data availability at the local level and to improve the accuracy of human capital estimations. Results captured the ongoing shrinkage of Sado and demonstrate the distinct potential of the IWI as a stock measure. Sado’s per capita wealth was about 10% lower than the national averages, but its natural capital was about threefold national averages. Supplementary estimations of the natural capital of fisheries and cultivated forests suggest that inclusion of additional factors in the evaluation would further increase the relative valuation of rural regions. We discuss implications of our estimations for wellbeing, and conclude with a critical appraisal of the IWI calculation towards policy implementation of the index.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10

Abbreviations

FAO:

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

IWI:

Inclusive wealth index

IWR:

Inclusive wealth report

GDP:

Gross domestic product

GIAHS:

Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Site

GPI:

Genuine progress indicator

GRP:

Gross regional product

MAFF:

Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan

MIC:

Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications of Japan

MOE:

Ministry of the Environment, Government of Japan

NTFB:

Non-timber forest benefits

OECD:

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

PIM:

Perpetual inventory method

UN DESA:

United Nations Department of Social and Economic Affairs

UNEP:

United Nations Environment Programme

UNU-IHDP:

United Nations University/International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change

USD:

United States Dollar

References

  1. Age International (2015) Facing the facts: The truth about ageing and development. Age International, London, United Kingdom

    Google Scholar 

  2. Anielski M, Rowe J (1999) The genuine progress indicator—1998 update. Redefining Progress, San Francisco, CA.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Antweiler W (2018) Foreign Currency Units per 1 U.S. Dollar, 1948–2015. http://fx.sauder.ubc.ca/etc/USDpages.pdf. Accessed 22 Feb 2018

  4. Arrow KJ, Dasgupta P, Mäler KG (2003) Evaluating projects and assessing sustainable development in imperfect economies. Environ Resour Econ 26:647–685. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EARE.0000007353.78828.98

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Arrow KJ, Dasgupta P, Goulder LH et al (2012) Sustainability and the measurement of wealth. Environ Dev Econ 17:317–353. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X12000137

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Ascough JC, Maier HR, Ravalico JK, Strudley MW (2008) Future research challenges for incorporation of uncertainty in environmental and ecological decision-making. Ecol Modell 219:383–399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2008.07.015

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Berry BJL, Okulicz-Kozaryn A (2009) Dissatisfaction with city life: a new look at some old questions. Cities 26:117–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2009.01.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Berry BJL, Okulicz-Kozaryn A (2011) An urban-rural happiness gradient. Urban Geogr 32:871–883. https://doi.org/10.2747/0272-3638.32.6.871

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Biedenweg K, Scott RP, Scott TA (2017) How does engaging with nature relate to life satisfaction? Demonstrating the link between environment-specific social experiences and life satisfaction. J Environ Psychol 50:112–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2017.02.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Bloom DE, Boersch-Supan A, McGee P, Seike A (2011) Population aging: facts, challenges, and responses. Program on the Global Demography of Aging Working Paper Series No. 71.2011. Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, Boston, MA

  11. Bolt K, Matete M, Clemens M (2002) Manual for calculating adjusted net savings. Environment Department, World Bank, Washington, D.C.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Cabinet Office (2017a) National Accounts. http://www.esri.cao.go.jp/jp/sna/menu.html. Accessed 11 Dec 2017

  13. Cabinet Office (2017b) Prefectural Accounts. In: Gov. Japan. http://www.esri.cao.go.jp/jp/sna/sonota/kenmin/kenmin_top.html. Accessed 11 Dec 2017

  14. Comberti C, Thornton TF, Wylliede Echeverria V, Patterson T (2015) Ecosystem services or services to ecosystems? Valuing cultivation and reciprocal relationships between humans and ecosystems. Glob Environ Chang. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.07.007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Cox DTC, Shanahan DF, Hudson HL et al (2017) Doses of nearby nature simultaneously associated with multiple health benefits. Int J Environ Res Public Health. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14020172

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Daily GC (1997) Nature’s services. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Dasgupta P (2007) Economics: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  18. Davey G, Chen Z, Lau A (2009) “Peace in a thatched hut-that is happiness”: subjective wellbeing among peasants in rural China. J Happiness Stud 10:239–252. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-007-9078-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. de Vries S, Verheij RA, Groenewegen PP, Spreeuwenberg P (2003) Natural environments—healthy environments? An exploratory analysis of the relationship between greenspace and health. Environ Plan A 35:1717–1731. https://doi.org/10.1068/a35111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Dearing JA, Wang R, Zhang K et al (2014) Safe and just operating spaces for regional social-ecological systems. Glob Environ Chang 28:227–238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.06.012

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. de los Ríos I, Rivera M, García C (2016) Redefining rural prosperity through social learning in the cooperative sector: 25 years of experience from organic agriculture in Spain. Land Use Policy 54:85–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.02.009

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Díaz S, Demissew S, Carabias J et al (2015) The IPBES conceptual framework—connecting nature and people. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 14:1–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2014.11.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Diener E, Tay L, Oishi S (2013) Rising income and the subjective well-being of nations. J Environ Psychol 2:267–276. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030487

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Donovan N, Halpern D (2002) Life satisfaction: The state of knowledge and implications for government. Strategy Unit, Cabinet Office, Government of the UK

  25. Duraiappah AK, Nakamura K, Takeuchi K et al (2012) Satoyama–Satoumi Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Assessing Trends to Rethink a Sustainable Future. Yokohama, Japan

  26. Duraiappah AK, Asah ST, Brondizio ES et al (2014) Managing the mismatches to provide ecosystem services for human well-being: a conceptual framework for understanding the new commons. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 7:94–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2013.11.031

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Eastwood A, Brooker R, Irvine RJ et al (2016) Does nature conservation enhance ecosystem services delivery? Ecosyst Serv 17:152–162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2015.12.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) (2014) The wellbeing effect of education. Economic & Social Research Council, Research Councils UK

  29. FAO (2006) Global forest resources assessment 2005. FAO, Rome

  30. FAO (2016) FAO-STAT. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data. Accessed 5 Oct 2017

  31. Feenstra RC, Inklaar R, Timmer MP (2015) The next generation of the penn world table. Am Econ Rev 105:3150–3182. https://doi.org/10.15141/S5J01T. https://ggdc.net/

  32. Feldhoff T (2013) Shrinking communities in Japan: community ownership of assets as a development potential for rural Japan? Urban Des Int 18:99–109. https://doi.org/10.1057/udi.2012.26

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Fukamachi K (2016) Sustainability of terraced paddy fields in traditional satoyama landscapes of Japan. J Environ Manag 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.11.061

  34. Gómez-Baggethun E, de Groot R, Lomas PL, Montes C (2010) The history of ecosystem services in economic theory and practice: from early notions to markets and payment schemes. Ecol Econ 69:1209–1218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.11.007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Hadavi S (2016) Direct and indirect effects of the physical aspects of the environment on mental well-being. Environ Behav. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916516679876

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Hayashi T (2015) Measuring rural-urban disparity with the genuine progress indicator: a case study in Japan. Ecol Econ 120:260–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2015.11.006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Hokuriku Regional Agricultural Administration Office (1993) Niigata gyogyō no ugoki: Niigata ken nōrinsuisan tōkei nenpō (Trends in Niigata fisheries: Niigata prefecture statistical yearbook for agriculture, forestry and fisheries)

  38. Hokuriku Regional Agricultural Administration Office (1994) Niigata gyogyō no ugoki: Niigata ken nōrinsuisan tōkei nenpō (Trends in Niigata fisheries: Niigata prefecture statistical yearbook for agriculture, forestry and fisheries)

  39. Hokuriku Regional Agricultural Administration Office (1995) Niigata gyogyō no ugoki: Niigata ken nōrinsuisan tōkei nenpō (Trends in Niigata fisheries: Niigata prefecture statistical yearbook for agriculture, forestry and fisheries)

  40. Hokuriku Regional Agricultural Administration Office (1997) Niigata gyogyō no ugoki: Niigata ken nōrinsuisan tōkei nenpō (Trends in Niigata fisheries: Niigata prefecture statistical yearbook for agriculture, forestry and fisheries)

  41. Hokuriku Regional Agricultural Administration Office (1999) Niigata gyogyō no ugoki: Niigata ken nōrinsuisan tōkei nenpō (Trends in Niigata fisheries: Niigata prefecture statistical yearbook for agriculture, forestry and fisheries)

  42. Hokuriku Regional Agricultural Administration Office (2000) Niigata gyogyō no ugoki: Niigata ken nōrinsuisan tōkei nenpō (Trends in Niigata fisheries: Niigata prefecture statistical yearbook for agriculture, forestry and fisheries)

  43. Hokuriku Regional Agricultural Administration Office (2001) Niigata gyogyō no ugoki: Niigata ken nōrinsuisan tōkei nenpō (Trends in Niigata fisheries: Niigata prefecture statistical yearbook for agriculture, forestry and fisheries)

  44. Hokuriku Regional Agricultural Administration Office (2004) Niigata gyogyō no ugoki: Niigata ken nōrinsuisan tōkei nenpō (Trends in Niigata fisheries: Niigata prefecture statistical yearbook for agriculture, forestry and fisheries)

  45. Hokuriku Regional Agricultural Administration Office (2006) Niigata gyogyō no ugoki: Niigata ken nōrinsuisan tōkei nenpō (Trends in Niigata fisheries: Niigata prefecture statistical yearbook for agriculture, forestry and fisheries)

  46. Holtan MT, Dieterlen SL, Sullivan WC (2014) Social life under cover: tree canopy and social capital in Baltimore, Maryland. Environ Behav 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916513518064

  47. Horiguchi K, Genma M (2017) Secrets behind longevity of farmers: Working hard and living life to the fullest [in Japanese]. https://www.waseda.jp/top/news/topic/52003. Accessed 5 Oct 2017

  48. Ikeda S, Nakamura H (2017) Accounting for inclusive wealth of regions: prefecture-level analysis in Japan during 1990–2010. In: Managi S (ed) The wealth of nations and regions, 1st edn. Routledge, New York, pp 150–185

    Google Scholar 

  49. Ikeda S, Tamaki T, Nakamura H, Managi S (2017) Inclusive wealth of regions: the case of Japan. Sustain Sci. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-017-0450-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Japan Satoyama Satoumi Assessment (2010) Satoyama-Satoumi ecosystems and human well-being: socio-ecological production landscapes of Japan—Summary for decision makers. United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan

  51. Jehlička P, Daněk P (2017) Rendering the actually existing sharing economy visible: home-grown food and the pleasure of sharing. Sociol Ruralis 57:274–296. https://doi.org/10.1111/soru.12160

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Kahneman D, Deaton A (2010) High income improves evaluation of life but not emotional well-being. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:16489–16493. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1011492107

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Kamiyama C, Hashimoto S, Kohsaka R, Saito O (2016) Non-market food provisioning services via homegardens and communal sharing in satoyama socio-ecological production landscapes on Japan’s Noto peninsula. Ecosyst Serv 17:185–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.01.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Kaplan R, Kaplan S (1989) The experience of nature: a psychological perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  55. Kasser T (2002) Personal well-being. In: The high price of materialism. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp 5–22

    Google Scholar 

  56. Keese M (2007) A method for calculating the average effective age of retirement. In: OECD. https://www.oecd.org/els/emp/39371923.pdf. Accessed 27 Jun 2017

  57. Kinsella K, Phillips DR (2005) Global aging: the challenge of success. Popul Bull 60:5–42

    Google Scholar 

  58. Knight J, Gunatilaka R (2010) The rural–urban divide in China: income but not happiness? J Dev Stud 46:506–534. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220380903012763

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Kohsaka R, Matsuoka H, Uchiyama Y (2016) Capturing the relationships between local foods and residents: a case in the Noto region, Japan. J Ethn Foods 3:86–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jef.2016.05.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Korpela K, Borodulin K, Neuvonen M et al (2014) Analyzing the mediators between nature-based outdoor recreation and emotional well-being. J Environ Psychol 37:1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2013.11.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. MacKerron G, Mourato S (2013) Happiness is greater in natural environments. Glob Environ Chang 23:992–1000. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.03.010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. MAFF (2010) Kokyō bokujyō wo meguru jyōsei (Situation regarding public pastures). http://www.maff.go.jp/j/chikusan/sinko/lin/l_siryo/pdf/koukyou.pdf. Accessed 11 Jul 2017

  63. MAFF (2017a) Menseki chōsa (Area survey). http://www.maff.go.jp/j/tokei/kouhyou/sakumotu/menseki/. Accessed 11 Jul 2017

  64. MAFF (2017b) Mokuzai kakaku tōkei chōsa (Statistical Survey of Timber Prices). http://www.maff.go.jp/j/tokei/kouhyou/mokuryu/kakaku/. Accessed 11 Jul 2017

  65. MAFF (2017c) Nōringyō sensasu (Census of Agriculture and Forestry). http://www.maff.go.jp/j/tokei/census/afc/. Accessed 11 Jul 2017

  66. MAFF (2017d) Ringyō keiei tōkei chōsa (Statistical Survey of Forestry Management). http://www.maff.go.jp/j/tokei/kouhyou/rinkei/. Accessed 11 Jul 2017

  67. MAFF (2017e) Gyogyō sensasu (Fisheries Census). http://www.maff.go.jp/j/tokei/census/fc/. Accessed 11 Jul 2017

  68. MAFF (2017f) Gyogyō keiei chōsa (Survey on Fisheries Management). http://www.maff.go.jp/j/tokei/kouhyou/gyokei/. Accessed 11 Jul 2017

  69. MAFF (2017g) Gyogyō sanshutu gaku (Gross fisheries output). http://www.maff.go.jp/j/tokei/kouhyou/gyogyou_seigaku/index.html. Accessed 11 Jul 2017

  70. MAFF (2017h) Kaimen gyogyō seisan tōkei chōsa (Statistical survey of marine fisheries production). http://www.maff.go.jp/j/tokei/kouhyou/kaimen_gyosei/. Accessed 11 Jul 2017

  71. MAFF Forestry Agency (2017) Shinrin / Ringyō hakusho (Forest and Forestry White Paper). http://www.rinya.maff.go.jp/j/kikaku/hakusyo/. Accessed 11 Jul 2017

  72. Matanle P, Sato Y (2010) Coming soon to a city near you! Learning to live “Beyond Growth” in Japan’s shrinking regions. Soc Sci Jpn J 13:187–210. https://doi.org/10.1093/ssjj/jyq013

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Michalos AC (2008) Education, happiness and wellbeing. Soc Indic Res 87:347–366. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-007-9144-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. MIC Statistics Bureau (2007) Statistical survey of national prices. http://www.stat.go.jp/data/zenbutu/2007/index.htm. Accessed 11 Dec 2017

  75. MIC Statistics Bureau (2017) Kokusei chōsa (Population Census). http://www.stat.go.jp/data/kokusei/2015/kekka.htm

  76. MOE (2016) 500 important Satoyama landscapes: Satoyama Landscapes important for biodiversity conservation. http://www.env.go.jp/nature/satoyama/pamph/leaflet0322s.pdf. Accessed 22 Feb 2018 [in Japanese]

  77. Morrison PS, Weckroth M (2017) Human values, subjective well-being and the metropolitan region. Reg Stud 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2017.1331036

  78. Mumford KJ (2012) Measuring inclusive wealth at the state level in the United States. In: UNU-IHDP, UNEP (eds) Inclusive wealth report 2012. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 69–86

    Google Scholar 

  79. Narayanan G, Aguiar AB, McDougall R (2012) Global trade, assistance, and production: The GTAP 8 data base. Center for Global Trade Analysis, Purdue University

  80. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research (2013) Population projection for Japan by region (March 2013). http://www.ipss.go.jp/pp-shicyoson/j/shicyoson13/t-page.asp. Accessed 5 Oct 2017

  81. Niigata Prefectural Government (2017) Niigata tōkei nenkan (Niigata Prefecture Statistical Yearbook). In: Niigata Prefect. http://www.pref.niigata.lg.jp/tokei/1196871357582.html. Accessed 11 Dec 2017

  82. Niigata Prefecture (2015) Municipal Accounts. http://www.pref.niigata.lg.jp/tokei/1202403638070.html. Accessed 11 Dec 2017

  83. Olsson P, Folke C (2001) Local ecological knowledge and institutional dynamics for ecosystem management: a study of Lake Racken watershed, Sweden. Ecosystems 4:85–104. https://doi.org/10.1007/s100210000061

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. OECD (2016) OECD territorial reviews: Japan 2016. OECD Publishing, Paris

  85. Polasky S, Bryant B, Hawthorne P et al (2015) Inclusive wealth as a metric of sustainable development. Annu Rev Environ Resour 40:150902153650003. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-environ-101813-013253

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Price R, Durham C, Chan J (2010) GES review of the economics of sustainable development. Government Economic Service and Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs, London

  87. Requena F (2016) Rural-urban living and level of economic development as factors in subjective well-being. Soc Indic Res 128:693–708. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-015-1051-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Saito O, Kamiyama C, Hashimoto S (2018) Non-market food provision and sharing in Japan’s socio-ecological production landscapes. Sustainability 10:213. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010213

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Sato M, Sato S, Waki M (2015) Estimation of the inclusive wealth of Japan.  Kyoto Institute of Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 1404. Kyoto University, Kyoto (in Japanese)

  90. Schippers P, van der Heide CM, Koelewijn HP et al (2014) Landscape diversity enhances the resilience of populations, ecosystems and local economy in rural areas. Landsc Ecol 30:193–202. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-014-0136-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Seymour V (2016) The human–nature relationship and its impact on health: a critical review. Front Public Heal 4:1–12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2016.00260

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Spiegelhalter D, Pearson M, Short I (2011) Visualizing uncertainty about the future. Science 333:1393–1400. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1191181

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  93. Stiglitz JE, Sen A, Fitoussi J-P (2009) Report by the commission on the measurement of economic performance and social progress. Sustain Dev 12:292. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1714428

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Sullivan WC, Kuo FE, Depooter SF (2004) The fruit of urban nature. Environ Behav 36:678–700

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Sustainable Development Commission (2003) Redefining prosperity: resource productivity, economic growth and sustainable development. Sustainable Development Commission, UK

  96. Takeuchi K, Ichikawa K, Elmqvist T (2016) Satoyama landscape as social–ecological system: historical changes and future perspective. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 19:30–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2015.11.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Tawaratsumida M (2015) Jōsei hōkoku: Hōboku wo meguru jōsei (Status report: State of grazing(. https://www.naro.affrc.go.jp/nilgs/kenkyukai/files/houboku2015_koen03.pdf. Accessed 11 Jul 2017

  98. The World Bank (2006) Where is the wealth of nations? Measuring Capital for the 21st Century. The World Bank, Washington, D.C.

  99. The World Bank (2017) World development indicators. http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=2&series=NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG&country=. Accessed 5 Oct 2017

  100. The World Bank Group (2017) Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. In: World Dev. Indic. http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=2&series=NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG&country=. Accessed 11 Dec 2017

  101. UN DESA Population Division (2017) World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP/248. New York, NY

  102. UN DESA Population Division (2015) World urbanization prospects: The 2014 revision. ST/ESA/SER.A/366. New York, NY

  103. UNU-IHDP and UNEP (2012) Inclusive wealth report 2012. Measuring progress toward sustainability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

  104. UNU-IHDP and UNEP (2014) Inclusive wealth report 2014. Measuring progress toward sustainability. UNU-IHDP, Cambridge

  105. van der Ploeg S, de Groot RS (2010) The TEEB valuation database—a searchable database of 1310 estimates of monetary values of ecosystem services. Foundation for Sustainable Development, Wageningen

    Google Scholar 

  106. Walker B (2005) A resilience approach to integrated assessment. Integr Assess J 5:77–97

    Google Scholar 

  107. Weinstein N, Balmford A, Dehaan CR et al (2015) Seeing community for the trees: the links among contact with natural environments, community cohesion, and crime. Bioscience 65:1141–1153. https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biv151

    Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Wilson G (2010) Multifunctional “quality” and rural community resilience. Trans Inst Br Geogr 35:364–381. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2010.00391.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  109. Winters JV, Li Y (2016) Urbanisation, natural amenities and subjective well-being: evidence from US counties. Urban Stud 54:1956–1973. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098016631918

    Article  Google Scholar 

  110. Wirth L (1938) Urbanism as a way of life. Am J Sociol 44:1–24

    Article  Google Scholar 

  111. Yamaguchi R, Sato M, Ueta K (2015) Measuring regional wealth and assessing sustainable development: an application to a disaster-torn region in Japan. Soc Indic Res 124:1–25. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-015-1106-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to recognize the generous support of Sado City and kind cooperation of Sado Agricultural Cooperative, Hamochi Agricultural Cooperative, Niigata Prefecture Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Division of Conservation, Niigata Prefecture Department for Sado Regional Promotion, Niigata Prefecture Sado Area Fishery Adjustment Committee and Niigata Prefecture Fisheries Oceanography Research Institute. We also appreciated the thoughtful contributions of Giles Bruno Sioen and Alexandros Gasparatos.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yuki Yoshida.

Additional information

This research was supported by Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Research Fellow (Grant Number 16J04155), SOMPO JAPAN Nipponkoa ENVIRONMENT FOUNDATION, JSPS KAKENHI (Grant Number 15KT0027), and the environment research and technology development fund [S15 predicting and assessing natural capital and ecosystem services (PANCES)] of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan.

Handled by Dr. Shizuka Hashimoto, Kyoto University, Japan.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 22 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Yoshida, Y., Matsuda, H., Fukushi, K. et al. Assessing local-scale inclusive wealth: a case study of Sado Island, Japan. Sustain Sci 13, 1399–1414 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-018-0540-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Sustainable development
  • Wellbeing
  • Socio-ecological production landscapes and seascapes
  • Satoyama–satoumi
  • Rural–urban disparity