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Beginning teachers’ transition from pre-service education to working life

Theoretical perspectives and best practices

Der Übergang von Lehrkräften von der vorbereitenden Ausbildung zum Arbeitsalltag

Theoretische Perspektiven und mustergültige Praxis

Instead of teaching, I told stories.

Anything to keep them quiet and in their seats.

They thought I was teaching.

I thought I was teaching.

I was learning. And you called yourself a teacher?

(Frank McCourt: Teacher Man, 2006, p. 19. London: Harper Perennial)

Abstract

This review article examines new teachers’ transition from education to work on the basis of recent studies on transition, workplace learning and induction to work. The following challenges of transition are addressed: (1) threat of unemployment, (2) inadequate knowledge and skills, (3) decreased self-efficacy and increased stress, (4) early attrition, (5) newcomers’ role and position in a work community, and (6) importance of learning at work. Workplace learning research is dealt with from the following viewpoints: (1) how do people learn at work? (2) the role of work communities and organization in learning (3) the trends of formalization and informalization of learning and (4) the methods used to promote the professional development of young teachers, emphasis being on peer group mentoring. Our general conclusion is that learning and professional development of teachers should be seen as a continuing process combining formal, non-formal and informal learning throughout the career from initial training to retirement. The best way to support new teachers is informed by a profound study of the practice architectures of the educational system as a whole.

Zusammenfassung

Dieser Überblicksartikel untersucht anhand von vorliegenden Studien den Übergang von Junglehrerinnen und -lehrern vom Studium über die Einführung in den Vorbereitungsdienst bis hin zum Lernen am Arbeitsplatz. Die folgenden Herausforderungen sind zu benennen: 1) die Gefahr der Arbeitslosigkeit; 2) inadäquate Kenntnisse und Fähigkeiten; 3) abnehmende Selbstwirksamkeit und zunehmender Stress; 4) frühe Abnutzungserscheinungen; 5) die Rolle des Neulings und dessen Position im Kollegium sowie 6) die Wichtigkeit des Lernens während der Arbeit. Die Forschung zum Lernen am Arbeitsplatz beschäftigt sich mit folgenden Aspekten: 1) Wie lernen Menschen am Arbeitsplatz? 2) die Rolle der Arbeitsgruppen und der Organisation des Lernens; 3) die Trends von Formalisierung und Informalisierung des Lernens und 4) die verwendeten Methoden, um die professionelle Entwicklung junger Lehrerinnen und Lehrer zu fördern, wobei der Schwerpunkt auf der Beratung/Betreuung durch Peers liegt. Unsere Kernaussage besteht darin, dass das Lernen und die professionelle Entwicklung von Lehrkräften als ein kontinuierlicher Prozess begriffen werden sollte, der formales, non-formales und informelles Lernen während der gesamten Berufslaufbahn kombiniert, und zwar von den ersten Übungen bis zum Ausscheiden aus dem Beruf. Der beste Weg, junge Lehrkräfte zu unterstützen, besteht darin, sich profund über die bestehenden Praxismodelle in den Bildungssystemen zu informieren.

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Tynjälä, P., Heikkinen, H. Beginning teachers’ transition from pre-service education to working life. Z Erziehungswiss 14, 11 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11618-011-0175-6

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Keywords

  • Beginning teachers
  • Mentoring
  • Novice teachers
  • Teacher induction
  • Transition from education to work
  • Workplace learning

Schlüsselwörter

  • Junglehrer
  • Mentor
  • Referendare
  • Lehrerbildung
  • Übergang von der Ausbildung zum Beruf
  • Lernen am Arbeitsplatz