Ansteckungsprozesse in Gruppen: Die Rolle von geteilten Gefühlen für Gruppenprozesse und -ergebnisse

Contagion in groups: the role of shared feelings for group processes and outcomes

Zusammenfassung

Gefühle betreffen nicht nur einzelne Gruppenmitglieder. Gefühle konvergieren und bilden oft eine von Teammitgliedern geteilte Gruppenstimmung. Der Artikel gibt einen Überblick über Prozesse, die zu einer geteilten Gruppenstimmung beitragen können sowie über Forschungsbefunde zu Gruppenprozessen und -ergebnissen, die mit einer Gruppenstimmung assoziiert werden. Unterschieden werden eine positive Gruppenstimmung und eine negative Gruppenstimmung als unabhängige Dimensionen. Eine positive Gruppenstimmung steht grundsätzlich mit erwünschten Gruppenprozessen und -ergebnissen in einem Zusammenhang. Sie fördert die Kooperation und Teamleistung. Eine negative Gruppenstimmung fördert Gruppenprozesse und -ergebnisse nur bei kurzfristig zusammenarbeitenden Gruppen. Arbeiten Gruppen länger zusammen, steht eine negative Gruppenstimmung mit Konflikten und geringer Leistung in einem Zusammenhang. Gruppen sollten sich bewusst sein, dass Stimmungen konvergieren. Eine positive Gruppenstimmung sollten sie kultivieren und eine aufkommende negative Gruppenstimmung frühzeitig regulieren.

Abstract

Feelings are not only a matter of individual group members. Within groups, individuals’ feelings converge resulting in a group affective tone. This paper provides an overview about processes that contribute to group affective tone as well as research findings about related group processes and outcomes. Group affective tone compromises two independent dimensions: positive group affective tone and negative group affective tone. Positive group affective tone is usually related to desired group processes and outcomes. It also promotes cooperation and performance. A negative group affective tone promotes group processes and outcomes only in groups that work together for a short time. In longer lasting groups negative group affective tone is linked to conflicts and reduced performance. Groups should be aware that affect spills over, cultivate a positive group affective tone and regulate an emergent negative group affective tone at an early stage.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Abb. 1

Literatur

  1. Ashkanasy, N. M., & Humphrey, R. H. (2011). Current emotion research in organizational behavior. Emotion Review, 3(2), 214–224. doi:10.1177/1754073910391684.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Barsade, S. G. (2002). The ripple effect: emotional contagion and its influence on group behavior. Administrative Science Quarterly, 47(4), 644. doi:10.2307/3094912.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Barsade, S. G., & Gibson, D. E. (2007). Why does affect matter in organizations? Academy of Management Perspectives, 21(1), 36–59. doi:10.5465/AMP.2007.24286163.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Barsade, S. G., & Gibson, D. E. (2012). Group affect: its influence on individual and group outcomes. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(2), 119–123. doi:10.1177/0963721412438352.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Barsade, S. G., & Knight, A. P. (2015). Annual review of organizational psychology and organizational behavior. Group affect, 2(1), 150112145937002. doi:10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032414-111316.

  6. Bartel, C. A., & Saavedra, R. (2000). The collective construction of work group moods. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45(2), 197. doi:10.2307/2667070.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Cheshin, A., Rafaeli, A., & Bos, N. (2011). Anger and happiness in virtual teams: emotional influences of text and behavior on others’ affect in the absence of non-verbal cues. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 116(1), 2–16. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2011.06.002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Chi, N.-W., Chung, Y.-Y., & Tsai, W.-C. (2011). How do happy leaders enhance team success? The mediating roles of transformational leadership, group affective tone, and team processes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41(6), 1421–1454. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2011.00767.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Choi, K., & Cho, B. (2011). Competing hypotheses analyses of the associations between group task conflict and group relationship conflict. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(8), 1106–1126. doi:10.1002/job.733.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Cole, M. S., Walter, F., & Bruch, H. (2008). Affective mechanisms linking dysfunctional behavior to performance in work teams: a moderated mediation study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(5), 945–958. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.93.5.945.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Collins, A. L., Lawrence, S. A., Troth, A. C., & Jordan, P. J. (2013). Group affective tone: a review and future research directions. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(S1), S43–S62. doi:10.1002/job.1887.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Elfenbein, H. A. (2007). Emotion in organizations: a review in stages. In A. Brief & J. Walsh (Hrsg.), Annals of the academy of management (1. Aufl. S. 315–386). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Elfenbein, H. A. (2014). The many faces of emotional contagion: an affective process theory of affective linkage. Organizational Psychology Review, 4(4), 326–362. doi:10.1177/2041386614542889.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Forgas, J. P., & George, J. M. (2001). Affective influences on judgments and behavior in organizations: an information processing perspective. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86(1), 3–34. doi:10.1006/obhd.2001.2971.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). Cultivated emotions: parental socialization of positive emotions and self-conscious emotions. Psychological Inquiry, 9(4), 279–281. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli0904_4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 359(1449), 1367–1377. doi:10.1098/rstb.2004.1512.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Positive emotions broaden and build. In P. Devine & A. Plant (Hrsg.), Advances in experimental social psychology (47. Aufl. S. 1–53). Burlington: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Fredrickson, B. L., & Branigan, C. (2005). Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought‐action repertoires. Cognition & Emotion, 19(3), 313–332. doi:10.1080/02699930441000238.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Frijda, N. H. (1986). The emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Gamero, N., González-Romá, V., & Peiró, J. M. (2008). The influence of intra-team conflict on work teams’ affective climate: a longitudinal study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 81(1), 47–69. doi:10.1348/096317907X180441.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Gasper, K., & Clore, G. L. (2002). Attending to the big picture: mood and global versus local processing of visual information. Psychological Science, 13(1), 34–40. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00406.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. George, J. M. (1990). Personality, affect, and behavior in groups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(2), 107–116. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.75.2.107.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. George, J. M., & King, E. B. (2007). Potential pitfalls of affect convergence in teams: functions and dysfunctions of group affective tone. In E. A. Mannix, M. A. Neale & C. Anderson (Hrsg.), Research on managing groups and teams. Affect and groups (Bd. 10, S. 97–123). Oxford: Elsevier JAI Press.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Grawitch, M. J., Munz, D. C., & Kramer, T. J. (2003). Effects of member mood states on creative performance in temporary workgroups. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 7(1), 41–54. doi:10.1037/1089-2699.7.1.41.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Hareli, S., & Rafaeli, A. (2008). Emotion cycles: on the social influence of emotion in organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 28, 35–59. doi:10.1016/j.riob.2008.04.007.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Hatfield, E., Rapson, R. L., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1994). Emotional contagion. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Isen, A. M. (2000). Positive affect and decision making. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland-Jones (Hrsg.), Handbook of emotions (2. Aufl. S. 417–435). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Janis, I. L. (1972). Victims of groupthink: a psychological study of foreign-policy decisions and fiascoes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Kauffeld, S. (2007). Jammern oder Lösungsexploration? Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 51(2), 55–67. doi:10.1026/0932-4089.51.2.55.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Kauffeld, S., & Meyers, R. A. (2009). Complaint and solution-oriented circles: interaction patterns in work group discussions. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 18(3), 267–294. doi:10.1080/13594320701693209.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Kauffeld, S., Handke, L., & Straube, J. (2016). Verteilt und doch verbunden: Virtuelle Teamarbeit. Gruppe. Interaktion. Organisation. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Organisationspsychologie (GIO), 47(1), 43–51. doi:10.1007/s11612-016-0308-8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Keltner, D., & Haidt, J. (1999). Social functions of emotions at four levels of analysis. Cognition & Emotion, 13(5), 505–521. doi:10.1080/026999399379168.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Ketelaar, T., & Tung Au, W. (2003). The effects of feelings of guilt on the behaviour of uncooperative individuals in repeated social bargaining games: an affect-as-information interpretation of the role of emotion in social interaction. Cognition & Emotion, 17(3), 429–453. doi:10.1080/02699930143000662.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Klonek, F. E., Güntner, A. V., Lehmann-Willenbrock, N., & Kauffeld, S. (2015). Using motivational interviewing to reduce threats in conversations about environmental behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1015. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.010115.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. Klonek, F. E., Quera, V., Burba, M., & Kauffeld, S. (2016). Group interactions and time: using sequential analysis to study group dynamics in project meetings. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 20(3), 209.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Knight, A. P. (2015). Mood at the midpoint: affect and change in exploratory search over time in teams that face a deadline. Organization Science, 26(1), 99–118. doi:10.1287/orsc.2013.0866.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Knight, A. P., & Eisenkraft, N. (2015). Positive is usually good, negative is not always bad: the effects of group affect on social integration and task performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(4), 1214–1227, doi:10.1037/apl0000006.

  38. Lehmann-Willenbrock, N., Meyers, R. A., Kauffeld, S., Neininger, A., & Henschel, A. (2011). Verbal interaction sequences and group mood: exploring the role of team planning communication. Small Group Research, 42(6), 639–668. doi:10.1177/1046496411398397.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Mason, C. M., & Griffin, M. A. (2003). Group absenteeism and positive affective tone: a longitudinal study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 667–687.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Meneghel, I., Salanova, M., & Martínez, I. M. (2016). Feeling good makes us stronger: How team resilience mediates the effect of positive emotions on team performance. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(1), 239–255.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Meyers, M. C., van Woerkom, M., & Bakker, A. B. (2013). The added value of the positive: a literature review of positive psychology interventions in organizations. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22(5), 618–632. doi:10.1080/1359432X.2012.694689.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Paulsen, H. F. K., & Kauffeld, S. (in press). Linking positive affect and motivation to transfer within training: a multilevel study. International Journal of Training and Development.

  43. Paulsen, H. F. K., Klonek, F. E., Schneider, K., & Kauffeld, S. (2016). Group affective tone and team performance: a week level study in project teams. Frontiers in Communication, 1, 7. doi:10.3389/fcomm.2016.00007.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Rhee, S.-Y. (2007). Group emotions and group outcomes: the role of group-member interactions. In E. A. Mannix, M. A. Neale & C. Anderson (Hrsg.), Research on managing groups and teams. Affect and groups (Bd. 10, S. 65–95). Oxford: Elsevier JAI Press.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Schneider, B. (1987). The people make the place. Personnel Psychology, 40(3), 437–453. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.1987.tb00609.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Schwarz, N. (2011). Feelings-as-information theory. In P. E. M. van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski & T. E. Higgens (Hrsg.), Handbook of theories of social psychology (S. 289–308). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Schwarz, N., & Clore, G. L. (1983). Mood, misattribution, and judgments of well-being: informative and directive functions of affective states. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(3), 513–523. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.45.3.513.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Schwarz, N., & Clore, G. L. (2003). Mood as information: 20 years later. Psychological Inquiry, 14(3–4), 296–303. doi:10.1080/1047840X.2003.9682896.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Schwarz, N., Bless, H., & Bohner, G. (1991). Mood and persuasion: affective states influence the processing of persuasive communications. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 24, 161–199.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Seong, J. Y., & Choi, J. N. (2014). Effects of group-level fit on group conflict and performance: the initiating tole of leader positive affect. Group & Organization Management, 39(2), 190–212. doi:10.1177/1059601113517138.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Spoor, J. R., & Kelly, J. R. (2004). The evolutionary significance of affect in groups: communication and group bonding. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 7(4), 398–412. doi:10.1177/1368430204046145.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Sy, T., Côté, S., & Saavedra, R. (2005). The contagious leader: impact of the leader’s mood on the mood of group members, group affective tone, and group processes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(2), 295–305. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.90.2.295.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. Tanghe, J., Wisse, B., & van der Flier, H. (2010). The formation of group affect and team effectiveness: the moderating role of identification. British Journal of Management, 21, 340–358. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8551.2009.00656.x.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Tsai, W.-C., Chi, N.-W., Grandey, A. A., & Fung, S.-C. (2012). Positive group affective tone and team creativity: negative group affective tone and team trust as boundary conditions. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(5), 638–656. doi:10.1002/job.775.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Van Kleef, G. A. (2009). How emotions regulate social life: the emotions as social information (EASI) model. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18(3), 184–188. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01633.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Watson, D., & Tellegen, A. (1985). Toward a consensual structure of mood. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 219–235.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Watson, D., Wiese, D., Vaidya, J., & Tellegen, A. (1999). The two general activation systems of affect: structural findings, evolutionary considerations, and psychobiological evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(5), 820–838. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.76.5.820.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Webb, T. L., Miles, E., & Sheeran, P. (2012). Dealing with feeling: a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation. Psychological Bulletin, 138(4), 775–808. doi:10.1037/a0027600.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Weiss, H. M., & Cropanzano, R. (1996). Affective events theory: a theoretical discussion of the structure, causes and consequences of affective experiences at work. In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Hrsg.), Research in organizational behavior: an annual series of analytical essays and critical reviews (S. 1–74). Greenwich: Elsevier Science JAI Press.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Wu, C.-H., & Wang, Z. (2015). How transformational leadership shapes team proactivity: the mediating role of positive affective tone and the moderating role of team task variety. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 19(3), 137–151. doi:10.1037/gdn0000027.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dipl. Psych. Hilko Frederik Klaas Paulsen.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Paulsen, H.F.K., Kauffeld, S. Ansteckungsprozesse in Gruppen: Die Rolle von geteilten Gefühlen für Gruppenprozesse und -ergebnisse. Gr Interakt Org 47, 357–364 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11612-016-0340-8

Download citation

Schlüsselwörter

  • Gruppenstimmung
  • Gruppenprozesse
  • Gruppenergebnisse
  • Emotionale Ansteckung

Keywords

  • Group affective tone
  • Group processes
  • Group outcomes
  • Emotional contagion