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Berliner Journal für Soziologie

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 171–199 | Cite as

Die organisierte Vermarktlichung der Moral und die Moralisierung der Märkte. Eine vergleichende Analyse der Fair-Handelsbewegung und der Entstehung ethischen Konsums in Europa

  • Sebastian Koos
Abhandlung

Zusammenfassung

Die Studie untersucht am Beispiel der Fair-Handelsbewegung, wie sich die Entstehung und Verbreitung des ethischen Konsums in Europa seit dem Ende der 1990er-Jahre erklären lässt. In Ergänzung zu den existierenden akteurszentrierten Erklärungen ethischen Konsums werden Ansätze sozialer Bewegungstheorien verwendet, welche die organisationalen Dimensionen der Fair-Handelsbewegung und die nationalen Opportunitätsstrukturen in den Blick nehmen. Im Artikel wird argumentiert, dass der Wandel der Feldlogik der Fair-Trade-Bewegung von einer zivilgesellschaftlichen hin zu einer Marktlogik einen zentralen Impuls für die Entstehung und die Diffusion des Konsums fair gehandelter Produkte, aber auch für das Wissen über Fair Trade darstellte. Die Hypothesen werden anhand einer Mehrebenen-Analyse mit Daten einer Eurobarometer-Umfrage (1997) überprüft, die um Informationen zu den nationalen Fair-Trade-Organisationen und den ökonomischen und kulturellen Opportunitätsstrukturen ergänzt wurden. Die Ergebnisse stützen die These des zentralen Einflusses der organisierten Vermarktlichung auf die Moralisierung der Märkte und weisen auf die spezifischen Mobilisierungsstrategien der Fair-Handelsbewegung hin.

Schlüsselwörter

Ethischer Konsum Fairer Handel Institutionelle Logik Soziale Bewegung Europa Diffusion 

The organized marketization of morality and the moralization of markets. A comparative analysis of the fair trade movement and the diffusion of ethical consumption in Europe

Abstract

This paper tries to show how the change in the organizational logic of the fair trade movement, embodied by fair trade labelling, has sparked the growth of ethical consumption. By establishing fair trade labels, the initial movement logic of political influence through education was supplemented and partly abandoned in favor of a market logic. Fair trade movements in Western Europe differ in the way they organize and market fair traded goods. Drawing on organizational institutionalism and social movement theories of economic opportunity structures, it is elaborated how the emergence of a new organizational form and its underlying logic shape consumption patterns. Hypotheses are empirically tested using a quantitative multilevel design. Organizational data on national fair trade movements compiled from an organizational survey of the European Fair Trade Association is combined with individual level survey data of the 1997 Eurobarometer for 12 European countries. Logistic hierarchical regression models reveal the crucial importance of the fair trade labels once diffused into consumer markets, controlling for organizational communication efforts as well as the number of distribution channels for individual fair trade consumption. Thus, adopting a market logic has been a powerful force in rendering fair trade successful.

Keywords

Ethical consumption Fair trade Institutional logic Social movements Europe Diffusion 

Le marketing organisé de la morale et la moralisation des marchés. Une analyse comparée du mouvement du commerce équitable et de l’émergence de la consommation éthique en Europe

Résumé

Cet article tente d’expliquer l’émergence et la diffusion de la consommation éthique en Europe depuis la fin des années 1990 en analysant l’exemple du commerce équitable. En complément des explications existantes de la consommation éthique centrées sur les acteurs, l’approche utilisée ici s’inspire des théories des mouvements sociaux et prend en compte les dimensions organisationnelles du mouvement du commerce équitable et les structures d’opportunités nationales. La thèse défendue est que le passage d’une logique citoyenne à une logique de marché comme modalité d’action du mouvement du commerce équitable a donné une impulsion décisive à l’émergence et à la diffusion de la consommation de produits équitables ainsi qu’à la connaissance du commerce équitable. Ces hypothèses sont vérifiées à l’aide d’une analyse multi-niveaux conduite à partir de données d’un sondage Eurobaromètre (1997) complétées par des informations sur les organisations nationales du commerce équitable ainsi que sur les structures d’opportunités économiques et culturelles. Les résultats étayent la thèse d’une influence décisive du marketing organisé sur la moralisation des marchés et mettent en évidence les stratégies de mobilisation spécifiques du mouvement du commerce équitable.

Mots-clés

Consommation éthique Commerce équitable Logique institutionnelle Mouvement social Europe Diffusion 

Notes

Danksagung

Für hilfreiche Kommentare und Anmerkungen zum Manuskript möchte ich mich bei den anonymen Gutachtern sowie Jörg Rössel und Henri Band herzlich bedanken.

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Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fachbereich Politik- und VerwaltungswissenschaftenUniversität KonstanzKonstanzDeutschland

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