Skip to main content

Historical Trends in the Representativeness and Incomes of Black Physicians, 1900–2018

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Figure 1
Figure 2


  1. 1.

    Alsan M, Garrick O, Graziani G. Does diversity matter for health? Experimental evidence from Oakland. Am Econ Rev 2019; 109: 4071-4111.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Association of American Medical Colleges. Diversity in medicine: Facts and figures 2019. 2019. Accessed February 4, 2021.

  3. 3.

    Ly DP, Seabury SA, Jena AB. Differences in incomes of physicians in the United States by race and sex: observational study. BMJ 2016; 353: i2923.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Griffin DH, Love SP, Obenski SM. Can the American Community Survey replace the Census Long Form? Accessed February 4, 2021.

  5. 5.

    IPUMS USA. Select samples. Accessed February 4, 2021.

  6. 6.

    Campbell KM, Corral I, Infante Linares JL, Tumin D. Projected estimates of African American medical graduates of closed historically black medical schools. JAMA Netw Open 2020; 3: e2015220.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The author wishes to thank Atheendar Venkataramani, Alice Ndikumana, Amanda Kreider, Pragya Kakani, and Samantha Burn for helpful comments on the paper.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dan P. Ly M.D., Ph.D., M.P.P..

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The author declares that he does not have a conflict of interest.


The views expressed in this manuscript are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the US Department of Veterans Affairs or the US government.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ly, D.P. Historical Trends in the Representativeness and Incomes of Black Physicians, 1900–2018. J GEN INTERN MED (2021).

Download citation