Heron M. Deaths: Leading causes for 2016. National Vital Statistics Reports. 2018;67(6). Accessed October 11, 2018 at
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. Suicide rising across the US. 2017. Accessed October 11, 2018 at from https://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/suicide/index.html
Grinshteyn E, Hemenway D. Violent death rates: the US compared with other high-income OECD countries, 2010. Am J Med 2016;129(3):266–273.
Lee LK, Fleegler EW, Farrell C, Avakame E, Srinivasan S, Hemenway D, Monuteaux MC. Firearm laws and firearm homicides: a systematic review. JAMA Intern Med 2017;177(1):106–19.
Morrall AR, Ramchand R, Smart R, Gresenz R, Cherney S, Griffin BA. The science of gun policy: a critical synthesis of research evidence on the effects of gun policies in the United States. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation. 2018;RR-2088-RC, 2018. Accessed October 11, 2018 at
Galea S, Branas CC, Flescher A, Formica MK, Hennig N, Liller KD, Madanat HN, Park A, Rosenthal JE, Ying J. Priorities in recovering from a lost generation of firearms research. Am J Public Health 2018;108(7):858–860.
Fleegler EW, Lee LK, Monuteaux MC, Hemenway D, Mannix R. Firearm legislation and firearm-related fatalities in the United States. JAMA Int Med 2013;173(9):732–40.
Kaufman EJ, Morrison CN, Branas CC, Wiebe DJ. State firearm laws and interstate firearm deaths from homicide and suicide in the United States: a cross-sectional analysis of data by county. JAMA Int Med 2018;178(5):692–700.
Tondo L, Albert MJ, Baldessarini RJ. Suicide rates in relation to health care access in the United States: an ecological study. J Clin Psychiatry 2006;67(4):517–23.
Marmot M. Social determinants of health inequalities. Lancet 2005;365(9464):1099–104.
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, 42 U.S.C. § 18001. 2010.
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. The social-ecological model: A framework for prevention. 2018. Accessed October 11, 2018 at https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/overview/social-ecologicalmodel.html
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. Web-based injury statistics query and reporting system. 2018. Accessed October 11, 2018 at https://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html
Society of General Internal Medicine. Accessed October 10, 2019 at https://www.sgim.org/File%20Library/SGIM/Communities/Advocacy/Quick%20Hits/SGIM-efforts-on-gun-safety 2016.pdf
American Psychiatric Association. Accessed October 10, 2019 at https://www.psychiatry.org/newsroom/news-releases/apa-joins-call-to-action-to-prevent-firearm-related-injury-and-death
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Occupational employment statistics. 2016. Accessed October 11, 2018 at https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes291066.htm
Sommers BD, Blendon RJ, Orav EJ, Epstein AM. Changes in utilization and health among low-income adults after Medicaid expansion or expanded private insurance. JAMA Int Med 2016;176(10):1501–9.
Kaiser Family Foundation. Medicaid Income Eligibility Limits for Parents, 2002-2018. Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured; the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, 2002–2009; and Georgetown University Center for Children and Families, 2011–2018. Accessed October 11, 2018 at
Cato Institute. Freedom in the 50 states. 2018. Accessed October 11, 2018 at
Chava S, Danis A, Hsu A. The impact of Right-to-Work laws on worker wages: evidence from collective bargaining agreements. Georgia Tech Scheller College of Business 2017;18(1), 1–70.
Dube A, Lester TW, Reich M. Minimum wage effects across state borders: Estimates using contiguous counties. Rev Econ Stat 2010;92(4):945–64.
Stearns J. The effects of paid maternity leave: Evidence from Temporary Disability Insurance. J Health Econ 2015;43:85–102.
McClenathan J, Pahn M, Siegel M. The Changing Landscape of U.S. Gun Policy: State Firearm Laws, 1991–2016. 2017. Accessed October 11, 2018 at
Siegel M, Pahn M, Xuan Z, Ross CS, Galea S, Kalesan B, Fleegler E, Goss KA. Firearm-related laws in all 50 US states, 1991–2016. Am J Public Health 2017;107(7):1122–9.
U. S. Census Bureau. Poverty status by state. Current Population Survey (CPS), Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) Supplement. 2016. Accessed October 11, 2018 at
Siegel M, Ross CS, King C. A new proxy measure for state-level gun ownership in studies of firearm injury prevention. Inj Prev 2014;20(3):204–7.
Flavin P, Radcliff B. Public policies and suicide rates in the American states. Soc Indic Res 2009;90(2):195–209.
Foster S, Giles-Corti B, Knuiman M. Neighbourhood design and fear of crime: a social-ecological examination of the correlates of residents’ fear in new suburban housing developments. Health Place 2010;16(6):1156–65.
Whittemore AH, BenDor TK. Reassessing NIMBY: The demographics, politics, and geography of opposition to high-density residential infill. J Urban Aff 2018:1–20.
Leigh-Hunt N, Bagguley D, Bash K, Turner V, Turnbull S, Valtorta N, Caan W. An overview of systematic reviews on the public health consequences of social isolation and loneliness. Public Health 2017;152:157–71.
Stravynski A, Boyer R. Loneliness in relation to suicide ideation and parasuicide: A population-wide study. Suic Life-Threatening Behav 2001;31(1):32–40.
Dozier KC, Miranda Jr MA, Kwan RO, Cureton EL, Sadjadi J, Victorino GP. Insurance coverage is associated with mortality after gunshot trauma. J Am College Surgeons 2010;210(3):280–5.
Anglemyer A, Horvath T, Rutherford G. The accessibility of firearms and risk for suicide and homicide victimization among household members: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 2014;160(2):101–10.
Lang M. The impact of mental health insurance laws on state suicide rates. Health Economics 2013;22(1):73–88.
Botelho M, Gonçalves RA. Why do people kill? A critical review of the literature on factors associated with homicide. Aggress Violent Behav 2016;26:9–15.
Rennó Santos M, Testa A, Weiss DB. Where poverty matters: examining the cross-national relationship between economic deprivation and homicide. Br J Criminol 2017;58(2):372–93.
Rehkopf DH, Buka SL. The association between suicide and the socio-economic characteristics of geographical areas: a systematic review. Psychol Med 2006;36(2):145–57.
Anestis MD, Houtsma C. The association between gun ownership and statewide overall suicide rates. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2018;48(2):204–17.
Siegel M, Rothman EF. Firearm ownership and suicide rates among US men and women, 1981–2013. Am J Public Health 2016;106(7):1316–22.
Hamilton D, Kposowa AJ. Firearms and violent death in the United States: Gun ownership, gun control, and mortality rates in 16 states, 2005–2009. Br J Educ Soc Behav Science 2015;7:84–98.
Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. Rates of household firearm ownership and homicide across US regions and states, 1988–1997. Am J Public Health 2002;92(12):1988–93.
Siegel M, Ross CS, King III C. The relationship between gun ownership and firearm homicide rates in the United States, 1981–2010. Am J Public Health 2013 Nov;103(11):2098–105.
Hemenway D, Shinoda-Tagawa T, Miller M. Firearm availability and female homicide victimization rates among 25 populous high-income countries. J Am Med Womens Assoc 2002;57(2):100–4.
Siegel M, Negussie Y, Vanture S, Pleskunas J, Ross CS, King III C. The relationship between gun ownership and stranger and nonstranger firearm homicide rates in the United States, 1981–2010. Am J Public Health 2014;104(10):1912–9.