Our sample included 301 people enrolled in West Virginia Medicaid who had a non-fatal overdose in 2014–2015. The sample was 60% male and 91% non-Hispanic White with mean age of 34.5 years; 54% of people had a diagnosis of depression, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia (not shown).
By 12 months post-overdose, individuals were more likely to receive buprenorphine (4.7% versus 8.3%, P = .02) and less likely to receive opioid analgesics (35.9% versus 23.6%, P < .001), or benzodiazepines (15.9% versus 11.6%, P = .03), compared to the 3 months prior to overdose. They were also less likely to receive mental health counseling (23.3% versus 15.3%, P = < .01). Differences were not significant for OUD office visits and receipt of naltrexone, antidepressants, antipsychotics, antianxiety, or antimania drugs (Table 1).
As month-level unadjusted analysis shows, OUD office visits spiked in the month of overdose, but then resumed pre-overdose trends (Fig. 1). In the 6 months after a non-fatal overdose, the proportion of people receiving buprenorphine increases by approximately 0.5 percentage points per month, while the proportion of people receiving opioid analgesics decreases by approximately 1.2 percentage points per month. At 12 months post-overdose, 7.3% of people received buprenorphine and 15.3% received opioid analgesics.