To assess time perceptions in race/gender-concordant and discordant interactions, we recruited 187 White patients [64.2% women, M(SD)Age = 35.06(18.82)], who consented to undergo a standardized health screening to determine their eligibility for future health behavior studies with one of 13 randomly assigned providers of various races/genders [46.2% women, 38.4% Asian-American, 30.8% African-American, 30.8% White]. Providers, who were medical or nursing students, were instructed to act in a professional manner but remain neutral with patients (e.g., minimizing small talk). Providers spent precisely 10 min with each patient, timed via stopwatch, administering a standardized medical protocol including health history and height, weight, and blood pressure measurements. Stanford University’s IRB approved these procedures. Patients’ cell phones were sequestered and exam rooms had no visible clocks to prevent awareness of actual time passed. Providers were blind to study hypotheses.
Post-visit, patients rated provider warmth (8 items, α = .89, e.g., “The medical practitioner was friendly,” “…made me feel at ease”) and competence (11 items, α = .92, e.g., “The medical practitioner was intelligent,” “…was skilled at the medical procedures”) on 7-point scales (1 = Strongly Disagree, 7 = Strongly Agree) based on previous research5, 6 that were averaged. Patients entered their estimation for minutes the provider spent with them in an open-ended text box. Providers were not present when patients completed these measures.
We used multiple linear regression (R version 3.3.1, https://www.R-project.org/) to predict time estimates with provider warmth and competence. Unstandardized regression coefficients were computed and P values ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Data are available from the corresponding author upon request.