Journal of General Internal Medicine

, Volume 33, Issue 12, pp 2046–2047 | Cite as

Using Smartphone Crowdsourcing to Redefine Normal and Febrile Temperatures in Adults: Results from the Feverprints Study

  • Jonathan S. HausmannEmail author
  • Ron Berna
  • Nitin Gujral
  • Soleh Ayubi
  • Jared Hawkins
  • John S. Brownstein
  • Fatma Dedeoglu
Concise Research Reports


Fever is often the first symptom of illness, a common reason for physician visits, and a cause for anxiety in patients, families, and the healthcare team. The most widely used definition of normal (37 °C) and febrile (38 °C) temperatures derive from a single study from 1868, despite recent research describing lower average and febrile temperatures, with fluctuations based on circadian rhythm and demographics [1, 2, 3]. Nevertheless, decisions to admit patients to the hospital, perform invasive procedures, or provide antibiotics are still made using these outdated values. Smartphones and wearable technology may allow us to redefine normal and febrile temperatures for individuals of different demographics and to improve our recognition of febrile illnesses. Researchers can now rapidly recruit large numbers of patients and crowdsource their data through platforms such as ResearchKit (Apple). Whether patient-reported data obtained through crowdsourcing conforms to research...


smartphone crowdsourcing ResearchKit temperatures fever 



The authors would like to thank the participants who contributed their time and data to this study. Preliminary drafts of this study were previously presented in poster form:

  • Feverprints: A Crowdsourcing Study of Temperature In Health And Disease. American College of Rheumatology Pediatric Rheumatology Symposium, Houston, TX May 18, 2017. Abstract 83.

  • The Feverprints App: Crowdsourcing technology to study temperatures in health and disease. International Congress of Familial Mediterranean Fever and Systemic Autoinflammatory Diseases, Northern Cyprus, Turkish Republic. Saturday, May 6, 2017. Abstract 81.

Compliance with Ethical Standards


The Boston Children’s Hospital Institutional Review Board approved this study.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they do not have a conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan S. Hausmann
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ron Berna
    • 3
    • 4
  • Nitin Gujral
    • 4
  • Soleh Ayubi
    • 4
    • 5
  • Jared Hawkins
    • 4
  • John S. Brownstein
    • 4
  • Fatma Dedeoglu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RheumatologyBoston Children’s HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Division of RheumatologyBeth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterBostonUSA
  3. 3.Villanova UniversityVillanovaUSA
  4. 4.Innovation & Digital Health AcceleratorBoston Children’s HospitalBostonUSA
  5. 5.UnitedHealth GroupBostonUSA

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