Journal of General Internal Medicine

, Volume 33, Issue 7, pp 1015–1017 | Cite as

Gender identity disparities in Pap test use in a sample of binary and non-binary transmasculine adults

  • Madina Agénor
  • Jaclyn M. White Hughto
  • Sarah M. Peitzmeier
  • Jennifer Potter
  • Madeline B. Deutsch
  • Dana J. Pardee
  • Sari L. Reisner
Concise Research Reports


Transmasculine individuals (i.e., individuals assigned female at birth who self-identify as men, transgender men, female-to-male [FTM], or another transmasculine gender identity) are at risk of developing cervical cancer1 but face notable barriers to screening.2,3 Although transmasculine individuals are a heterogeneous population composed of persons with diverse gender identities,4 no prior study to our knowledge has examined whether cervical cancer screening differs between individuals assigned female at birth who self-identify as men, transgender men, or FTM (i.e., binary) and those who self-identify as another transmasculine gender identity such as neither exclusively male nor female, agender, or genderqueer (i.e., non-binary).


In 2015–2016, 150 transmasculine adults living in the Greater Boston area completed a self-administered survey on their sociodemographic characteristics and sexual health. Inclusion criteria were (1) ages 21–64 years; (2) assigned female...


Cervical cancer Screening Transmasculine Gender identity Health disparities 



We are grateful to the transmasculine individuals who participated in this study. We would also like to thank the study Task Force (Tre’Andre Valentine, Mason Dunn, Landen Motyka, Thomas Lewis, Ruben Hopwood, MDiv, PhD, Yvonne Gomez-Carrion, MD, Joshua Safer, MD, FACP, Julie Thompson, PA-C, Van Bailey, EdD, and Elizabeth Boskey, PhD) and study providers (Timothy Cavanaugh, MD, Tracey Toner, NP, Ellie Doig, NP, Ryan Tappin, NP, and Jessica Piccirilli, PA).

Funding information

This research was funded by a Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) grant awarded to Dr. Sari Reisner (CER-1403-12625; Identifier: NCT02401867).

Compliance with ethical standards

This study was approved by the Fenway Health Institutional Review Board.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they do not have any conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Madina Agénor
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jaclyn M. White Hughto
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sarah M. Peitzmeier
    • 4
  • Jennifer Potter
    • 2
    • 5
    • 6
  • Madeline B. Deutsch
    • 7
  • Dana J. Pardee
    • 2
  • Sari L. Reisner
    • 2
    • 8
    • 9
    • 10
  1. 1.Department of Social and Behavioral SciencesHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  2. 2.The Fenway Institute, Fenway HealthBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of EpidemiologyBrown University School of Public HealthProvidenceUSA
  4. 4.Department of Health Behavior and Biological SciencesUniversity of Michigan School of NursingAnn ArborUSA
  5. 5.Department of MedicineHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  6. 6.Department of MedicineBeth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterBostonUSA
  7. 7.Department of Family and Community MedicineUniversity of California at San Francisco School of MedicineSan FranciscoUSA
  8. 8.Department of PediatricsHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  9. 9.Department of PediatricsBoston Children’s HospitalBostonUSA
  10. 10.Department of EpidemiologyHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public HealthBostonUSA

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