Hall AJ, Logan JE, Toblin RL, et al. Patterns of abuse among unintentional pharmaceutical overdose fatalities. JAMA. 2008;300:2613–2620.
Caudill-Slosberg MA, Schwartz LM, Woloshin S. Office visits and analgesic prescriptions for musculoskeletal pain in US: 1980 vs 2000. Pain. 2004;109:514–9.
Ballantyne JC, Mao J. Opioid therapy for chronic pain. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:1943–53.
Cicero T, Inciardi JA, Munoz A. Trends in abuse of Oxycontin and other opioid analgesics in the United States 2002–2004. J Pain. 2005;6:662–72.
Kluger J. The new drug crisis: addiction by prescription. Time 2010:46–9.
Cole BE. The need for chronic opioids to treat persistent noncancer pain. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2011;33:419–22.
Morrison RS, Magaziner J, Gilbert M, Koval KJ, McLaughlin MA, Orosz G, Strauss E, Siu AL. Relationship between pain and opioid analgesics on the development of delirium following hip fracture. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003;58:76–81.
Results from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. In: Administration SAMHSA, ed. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2011.
Dodrill CL, Helmer DA, Kosten TR. Prescription pain medication dependence. Am J Psychiatry. 2011;168:466–71.
Department of Health & Human Services CfDCaP. Unintentional Drug Poisoning in the United States; 2010.
Jackson SW. Melancholia and depression: from hippocratic times to modern times. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; 1986.
Pfeiffer A, Brantl V, Herz A, Emrich HM. Psychotomimesis mediated by kappa opiate recepters. Science. 1986;233:774–6.
Grattan A, Sullivan M, Saunders K, Campbell C, Von Korff M. Depression and prescription opioid misuse among chronic opioid therapy recipients with no history of substance abuse. Ann Fam Med. 2012;10:304–11.
Reid MC, Engles-Horton LL, Weber MB, Kerns RD, Rogers EL, O’Connor PG. Use of opioid medications for chronic noncancer pain syndromes in primary care. J Gen Intern Med. 2002;17:173–9.
Sullivan MD, Edlund MJ, Zhang L, Unutzer J, Wells KB. Association between mental health disorders, problem drug use, and regular prescription opioid use. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:2087–93.
Braden JB, Sullivan MD, Ray GT, et al. Trends in long-term opioid therapy for noncancer pain among persons with a history of depression. Gen Hosp Psych. 2009;31:564–70.
Volkow ND. Drug abuse and mental illness: progress in understanding comorbidity. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158:1181–3.
Edlund M, Martine BC, Fan MY, Brennan Braden J, Deveries A, Sullivan MD. An analysis of heavy utilizers of opioids for chronic noncancer pain in the TROUP study. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2010;40:279–89.
Volkow ND. The reality of comorbidity: depression and drug abuse. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;56:714–7.
Oxycodone and acetaminophen: drug information. In: Lexicomp, Inc; 2012.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Fourth Edition. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.
Fishbain D, Cutler R, Rosomoff H, Rosomoff RS. Chronic pain-associated depression: antecedent or consequence of chronic pain? A review. Clin J Pain. 1997;13:116–37.
Heinze G, Juni P. An overview of the objectives and the approaches to propensity score analysis. Eur Heart J. 2011;32:1704–8.
Frayne SM, Miller DR, Sharkansky EJ, Jackson VW, Wang F, Halanych JH, Berlowitz DR, Kader B, Rosen CS, Keane TM. Using administrative data to identify mental illness: what approach is best? American Journal of Medical Quality 2010;25:42–50.
Solberg LI, Engebretson KI, Sperl-Hillen JM, Hroscikoski MC, O'Connor PJ. Are claims data accurate enough to identify patients for performance measures or quality improvement? The case of diabetes, heart disease, and depression. American Journal of Medical Quality 2006;21:238-245.
Rosenbaum PR, Rubin DB. The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects. Biometrika. 1983;70:41–55.
Williamson E, Morley R, Lucas A, Carpenter J. Propensity scores: From naive enthusiasm to inituitive understanding. Stat Methods Med Res. 2012;21:273–93.
Cole SR, Hernan MA. Constructing inverse probability weights for marginal structural models. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;168:656–64.
Curtis LH, Hammill BG, Eisenstein EL, Kramer JM, Anstrom KJ. Using inverse probability-weighted estimators in comparative effectiveness analysis with observational databases. Med Care. 2007;45:S103–7.
Kilpatrick RD, Gilberston D, Brookhart MA, Polley E, Rothman KJ, Bradbury BD. Exploring large weight deletion and the ability to balance confounders when using inverse probability of treatment weighting in the presence of rate treatment decisions. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2013;22:111–21.
Seal KH, Shi Y, Cohen G, et al. Association of mental health disorders with prescription opioids and high-risk opioid use in US Veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan. JAMA. 2012;307:940–7.
Healy D. Pharmageddon. Berkley and Los Angeles: University of California Press; 2010.
Hyman SE, Malenka RC, Nestler EJ. Neural mechanisms of addiction: the role of reward-related learning and memory. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2006;29:565–98.
Robinson TE, Kolb B. Structural plasticity associated with exposure to drugs of abuse. Neuropharmacology. 2004;47:33–46.
Spanagel R, Shipenberg TS. Modulation of morphine-induced sensitization by endogenous kappa opioid systems in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1993;153:232–6.
George S, Murali V, Pullickal R. Review of neuroendocrine correlates of chronic opiate misuse: dysfunctions and pathophysiological mechanisms. Addic Dis Treat. 2005;4:99–109.
Schaffer CB, Nordahl TE, Schaffer LC, Howe J. Mood-elevating effects of opioid analgesics in patients with bipolar disorder. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2007;19:449–52.
Schneeweiss S. Sensitivity analysis and external adjustment for unmeasured confounders in epidemiologic database studies of therapeutics. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2006;15:291–303.
Psaty BM, Koepsell TD, Lin D, et al. Assessment and control for confounding by indication in obsrvational studies. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1999;47:749–54.