Prevalence and Predictors of Unnecessary Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in the Two-Stage Endoscopic Stone Extraction Followed by Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy
- 87 Downloads
A two-stage procedure involving endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), followed by cholecystectomy, is one of the primary treatments of concomitant gallstones and choledocholithiasis. However, negative findings on ERCP and migrating gallstones after cholecystectomy are major concerns. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of unnecessary ERCP and to develop and validate a predictive nomogram using preoperative factors in patients who underwent a two-stage procedure.
Consecutive 931 patients were treated with the two-stage procedure for evident gallstones and suspected choledocholithiasis. After the cholecystectomy, a cholangiogram was performed to confirm the absence of the migrating gallstones. The patients were divided into derivation (n = 652) and validation (n = 279) cohorts.
A total of 26.5% (247/931) patients had unnecessary ERCP (negative choledocholithiasis, 14.6%; migrating gallstones, 11.9%). No stones on images (P < 0.001), total bilirubin < 1.2 mg/dL (P = 0.006), and common bile duct diameter < 8.0 mm (P = 0.004) were independent factors associated with negative finding on ERCP with a validated nomogram area under the curve (AUC) of 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64–0.80). For migrating gallstones after cholecystectomy, radiolucent gallstones (P < 0.001), gallstone size ≤ 6.4 mm (P = 0.001), cystic duct stones (P < 0.001), gallbladder wall thickness ≥ 3.2 mm (P = 0.003), and low-lying cystic duct (P < 0.001) were independent factors with a validated nomogram AUC of 0.77 (95% CI 0.68–0.87).
About one fourth of the patients may have unnecessary ERCP in the two-stage procedure. Based on our nomogram using preoperative factors, high-risk patients who are more likely to perform unnecessary ERCP could be considered for the one-stage procedure.
KeywordsEndoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography Cholecystectomy Gallstones Choledocholithiasis Two-stage procedure
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- 12.Adams MA, Hosmer AE, Wamsteker EJ, Anderson MA, Elta GH, Kubiliun NM et al. Predicting the likelihood of a persistent bile duct stone in patients with suspected choledocholithiasis: accuracy of existing guidelines and the impact of laboratory trends. Gastrointest Endosc 2015; 82: 88–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.Pierce RA, Jonnalagadda S, Spitler JA, Tessier DJ, Liaw JM, Lall SC et al. Incidence of residual choledocholithiasis detected by intraoperative cholangiography at the time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients having undergone preoperative ERCP. Surg Endosc 2008; 22: 2365–2372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Koc B, Karahan S, Adas G, Tutal F, Guven H, Ozsoy A. Comparison of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography plus laparoscopic cholecystectomy for choledocholithiasis: a prospective randomized study. Am J Surg 2013; 206: 457–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar