Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery

, Volume 20, Issue 9, pp 1554–1564 | Cite as

Morbidity and Mortality After Gastrectomy: Identification of Modifiable Risk Factors

  • Allison N. Martin
  • Deepanjana Das
  • Florence E. Turrentine
  • Todd W. Bauer
  • Reid B. Adams
  • Victor M. ZaydfudimEmail author
Original Article



Morbidity after gastrectomy remains high. The potentially modifiable risk factors have not been well described. This study considers a series of potentially modifiable patient-specific and perioperative characteristics that could be considered to reduce morbidity and mortality after gastrectomy.


This retrospective cohort study includes adults in the ACS NSQIP PUF dataset who underwent gastrectomy between 2011 and 2013. Sequential multivariable models were used to estimate effects of clinical covariates on study outcomes including morbidity, mortality, readmission, and reoperation.


Three thousand six hundred and seventy-eight patients underwent gastrectomy. A majority of patients had distal gastrectomy (N = 2,799, 76.1 %) and had resection for malignancy (N = 2,316, 63.0 %). Seven hundred and ninety-eight patients (21.7 %) experienced a major complication. Reoperation was required in 290 patients (7.9 %). Thirty-day mortality was 5.2 %. Age (OR = 1.01, 95 % CI = 1.01–1.02, p = 0.001), preoperative malnutrition (OR = 1.65, 95 % CI = 1.35–2.02, p < 0.001), total gastrectomy (OR = 1.63, 95 % CI = 1.31–2.03, p < 0.001), benign indication for resection (OR = 1.60, 95 % CI = 1.29–1.97, p < 0.001), blood transfusion (OR = 2.57, 95 % CI = 2.10–3.13, p < 0.001), and intraoperative placement of a feeding tubes (OR = 1.28, 95 % CI = 1.00–1.62, p = 0.047) were independently associated with increased risk of morbidity. Association between tobacco use and morbidity was statistically marginal (OR = 1.23, 95 % CI = 0.99–1.53, p = 0.064). All-cause postoperative morbidity had significant associations with reoperation, readmission, and mortality (all p < 0.001).


Mitigation of perioperative risk factors including smoking and malnutrition as well as identified operative considerations may improve outcomes after gastrectomy. Postoperative morbidity has the strongest association with other measures of poor outcome: reoperation, readmission, and mortality.


Gastrectomy Morbidity ACS NSQIP Surgical outcomes Gastric resection 



American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and the hospitals participating in the ACS NSQIP are the source of a portion of data used herein; they have not verified and are not responsible for the statistical validity of the data analyses or the conclusions derived by the authors. This study was supported in part by funding support provided by the Institutional National Research Service Award T32 CA 163177 from the National Cancer Institute to A.N.M.


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Copyright information

© The Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allison N. Martin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Deepanjana Das
    • 1
  • Florence E. Turrentine
    • 1
    • 2
  • Todd W. Bauer
    • 1
    • 3
  • Reid B. Adams
    • 1
    • 3
  • Victor M. Zaydfudim
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Surgical Outcomes Research CenterUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Division of Surgical Oncology, Section of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic SurgeryUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA

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