Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery

, Volume 18, Issue 12, pp 2123–2129 | Cite as

A Nomogram to Predict Disease-Free Survival After Surgical Resection of GIST

  • Danielle A. Bischof
  • Yuhree Kim
  • Ramy Behman
  • Paul J. Karanicolas
  • Fayez A. Quereshy
  • Dan G. BlazerIII
  • Shishir K. Maithel
  • T. Clark Gamblin
  • Todd W. Bauer
  • Timothy M. Pawlik
Original Article



Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Adjuvant imatinib therapy has resulted in improved disease-free survival (DFS) following resection of primary GIST. The aim of our study was to create a nomogram to predict DFS following resection of GIST.


Using a multi-institutional cohort of patients who underwent surgery for primary GIST at 7 academic hospitals in the USA and Canada between January 1998 and December 2012, a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model predicting DFS was created using backward stepwise selection. A nomogram to predict DFS following surgical resection of GIST was constructed with the variables selected in the multivariable model. We tested nomogram discrimination by calculating the C-statistic and compared the nomogram to four existing GIST prognostic stratification systems.


A total of 365 patients who underwent surgery for primary GIST was included in the study. Using backward stepwise selection, sex, tumor size, tumor site, and mitotic rate were selected for incorporation into the nomogram. The nomogram demonstrated superior discrimination compared to the NIH criteria, modified NIH criteria, and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Nomogram and had similar discrimination to the Miettinen criteria (C-statistic 0.77 vs 0.73, 0.71, 0.71, and 0.78, respectively).


Four independent predictors of recurrence following surgery for primary GIST were used to create a nomogram to predict DFS. The nomogram stratified patients into prognostic groups and performed well on internal validation.


GIST Prognosis Outcome Nomogram 

Supplementary material

11605_2014_2658_MOESM1_ESM.docx (23 kb)
ESM 1(DOCX 23 kb)
11605_2014_2658_MOESM2_ESM.docx (21 kb)
ESM 2(DOCX 21 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Danielle A. Bischof
    • 1
  • Yuhree Kim
    • 1
  • Ramy Behman
    • 2
    • 3
  • Paul J. Karanicolas
    • 2
    • 3
  • Fayez A. Quereshy
    • 3
    • 4
  • Dan G. BlazerIII
    • 5
  • Shishir K. Maithel
    • 6
  • T. Clark Gamblin
    • 7
  • Todd W. Bauer
    • 8
  • Timothy M. Pawlik
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Surgical OncologyThe Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Sunnybrook Health Sciences CentreTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  4. 4.University Health NetworkTorontoCanada
  5. 5.Department of SurgeryDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  6. 6.Department of SurgeryEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  7. 7.Medical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA
  8. 8.Department of SurgeryUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA

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