Multivisceral Transplantation: Expanding Indications and Improving Outcomes
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Multivisceral transplantation includes the simultaneous transplantation of multiple abdominal viscera including the stomach, duodenum, pancreas, and small intestine, with (multivisceral transplant, MVT) or without the liver (modified MVT, MMVT). This study reviews the changing indications and outcomes for this procedure over a 7-year period at a university medical center.
This study is a retrospective case review of MVTs performed between 2004 and 2010 at a single center. All cases were either MVT or MMVT and included a simultaneous kidney transplant, if indicated. Graft failure was defined as loss of the graft or complete loss of function. Graft function was monitored by clinical function, laboratory values, and serial endoscopy with biopsy.
During the study period, 95 patients received 100 transplants including 84 MVT and 16 MMVT. There were 19 patients who received a simultaneous kidney graft. There were 24 pediatric and 76 adult recipients (range 7 months to 66 years). Indications included intestinal failure alone, intestinal failure with cirrhosis, complete portal mesenteric thrombosis, slow-growing central abdominal tumors, intestinal pseudoobstruction, and frozen abdomen. All patients received antibody-based induction immunosuppression with calcineurin inhibitor-based maintenance immunosuppression. At a median mortality adjusted follow-up of 25 months, 1- and 3-year patient survival is 72 % and 57 %. There was a learning curve with this complex procedure resulting in a 48 % patient survival during the period from 2004 to 2007, followed by a 70 % patient survival during the period from 2008 to 2010. Post-transplant complications included rejection (50 % MMVT and 17 % MVT), infection (>90 % first year), graft versus host disease (13 %), and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (5 %).
Indications for MVT and MMVT have broadened to include patients with terminal conditions not amenable to other medical therapies such as slow-growing tumors of the mesenteric root, complete portomesenteric thrombosis, and abdominal catastrophes/frozen abdomen. Outcomes have improved over time with many patients returning to full functional status and enjoying long-term survival.
KeywordsMultivisceral transplant Modified multivisceral transplant Outcomes Surgical indications
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