Advertisement

Japanese Journal of Radiology

, Volume 37, Issue 10, pp 710–718 | Cite as

In vitro evaluation of radiopacity of contrast-loaded superabsorbent polymer microspheres (SAP-MS) with static imaging and flow model

  • Akiko NaritaEmail author
  • Takahiro Yamamoto
  • Shuji Ikeda
  • Yuichiro Izumi
  • Akira Kitagawa
  • Mansaku Takeda
  • Kenta Murotani
  • Makiyo Hagihara
  • Toyohiro Ota
  • Tsuneo Ishiguchi
  • Kojiro Suzuki
Original Article
  • 35 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

To evaluate the radiopacity of contrast-loaded superabsorbent polymer microspheres (SAP-MS) under X-ray imaging.

Materials and methods

SAP-MS were suspended in contrast material (iodixanol) and the diameter change was assessed. The diameter of contrast-loaded SAP-MS in saline was measured sequentially. Radiography of the contrast-loaded SAP-MS was evaluated as radiopacity by contrast-to-noise ratio and visibility by multiple reader scoring. Under digital subtraction angiography, contrast-loaded SAP-MS were injected into a flow model. The flow speed was 1–10 cm/s, and images were acquired at 1–7.5 frames per second using a pulse width of 10–85 ms. Images were assessed by multiple reader scoring.

Results

The diameter of SAP-MS increased to 4.0–5.0 times its original size for approximately 15 min. The diameter of contrast-loaded SAP-MS in saline further increased by 10–30% within several minutes and returned to the previous size. Radiopacity and visibility of contrast-loaded SAP-MS decreased in 30 min after mixing with saline. Visibility was better with slow flow speed and narrow pulse width.

Conclusion

For effective observation, contrast-loaded SAP-MS should be kept in non-diluted contrast material until use. The conditions of slower flow and use of a narrow pulse width are recommended.

Keywords

Embolization Microspheres Radiopacity Radiopaque beads 

Notes

Funding

This study was not supported by any funding.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical statement

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. 1.
    Laurent A, Wassef M, Saint Maurice JP, Namur J, Pelage JP, Seron A, et al. Arterial distribution of calibrated tris-acryl gelatin and polyvinyl alcohol microspheres in a sheep kidney model. Invest Radiol. 2006;41:8–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bonomo G, Pedicini V, Monfardini L, Della Vigna P, Poretti D, Orgera G, et al. Bland embolization in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma using precise, tightly size-calibrated, anti-inflammatory microparticles: first clinical experience and one-year follow-up. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2010;33:552–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Malagari K, Pomoni M, Moschouris H, Bouma E, Koskinas J, Stefaniotou A, et al. Chemoembolization with doxorubicin-eluting beads for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: five-year survival analysis. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2012;35:1119–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brown KT. Fatal pulmonary complications after arterial embolization with 40–120-micro m tris-acryl gelatin microspheres. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2004;15:197–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gobin YP, Vinuela F, Vinters HV, Ji C, Chow K. Embolization with radiopaque microbeads of polyacrylonitrile hydrogel: evaluation in swine. Radiology. 2000;214:113–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Liu YS, Lin XZ, Tsai HM, Tsai HW, Chen GC, Chen SF, et al. Development of biodegradable radiopaque microsphere for arterial embolization—a pig study. World J Radiol. 2015;7:212–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Duran R, Sharma K, Dreher MR, Ashrafi K, Mirpour S, Lin M, et al. A novel inherently radiopaque bead for transarterial embolization to treat liver cancer—a pre-clinical study. Theranostics. 2016;6:28–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sharma KV, Bascal Z, Kilpatrick H, Ashrafi K, Willis SL, Dreher MR, et al. Long-term biocompatibility, imaging appearance and tissue effects associated with delivery of a novel radiopaque embolization bead for image-guided therapy. Biomaterials. 2016;103:293–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hori S, Okada A, Sakamoto K, Jiaqi Y, Minamitani K, Inaba F, et al. A new embolic material: super absorbent polymer microsphere and its embolic effects. Jpn J Intervent Radiol. 1996;11:375–81 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jiaqi Y, Hori S, Minamitani K, Hashimoto T, Yoshimura H, Nomura N, et al. A new embolic material: super absorbent polymer (SAP) microsphere and its embolic effects. Nihon Igaku Hoshasen Gakkai Zasshi. 1996;56:19–24 (in Japanese).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gupta AK, Nelson RC, Johnson GA, Paulson EK, Delong DM, Yoshizumi TT. Optimization of eight-element multi-detector row helical CT technology for evaluation of the abdomen. Radiology. 2003;227:739–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Choe DH, Han MH, Kang GH, Yeon KM, Han MC. An experimental study of embolic effect according to infusion rate and concentration of suspension in transarterial particulate embolization. Invest Radiol. 1997;32:260–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Flory PJ. CHAPTER XIII. Phase equilibria in polymer systems. Principles of polymer chemistry. 1st ed. Ithaca: Cornell University Press; 1953. p. 584–9.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tanimoto D, Ito K, Yamamoto A, Sone T, Kobatake M, Tamada T, et al. Observation of intravascular changes of superabsorbent polymer microsphere (SAP-MS) with monochromatic X-ray imaging. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2010;33:1016–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Guibelalde E, Vano E, Vaquero F, Gonzalez L. Influence of X-ray pulse parameters on the image quality for moving objects in digital cardiac imaging. Med Phys. 2004;31:2819–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Radiological Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akiko Narita
    • 1
    Email author
  • Takahiro Yamamoto
    • 1
  • Shuji Ikeda
    • 1
  • Yuichiro Izumi
    • 1
  • Akira Kitagawa
    • 1
  • Mansaku Takeda
    • 2
  • Kenta Murotani
    • 3
  • Makiyo Hagihara
    • 1
  • Toyohiro Ota
    • 1
  • Tsuneo Ishiguchi
    • 1
  • Kojiro Suzuki
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyAichi Medical UniversityNagakuteJapan
  2. 2.Department of Radiological TechnologyAichi Medical University HospitalNagakuteJapan
  3. 3.Biostatistics Center, Graduate School of MedicineKurume UniversityKurumeJapan

Personalised recommendations