Skip to main content

Structure of the crust and lithospheric mantle beneath the central main Ethiopian rift

Abstract

We use the complete Bouguer anomaly (CBA) derived from GGMplus 2013 to model the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depth, LAB temperature, lithospheric mantle density and crustal/lithospheric mantle structure of the central main Ethiopian rift (CMER) and surrounding regions. The regional Bouguer anomaly is estimated by using a 200-km cutoff wavelength low-pass filter, and the resulting anomaly map is inverted using Parker–Oldenburg method to generate the depth to the LAB. The result shows that the LAB depth values fluctuate between 38.8 and 78 km in the region. The LAB temperature is estimated based on the results of the LAB depth in the CMER and surrounding regions. The LAB temperature estimates range between 1267 and 1287 °C in the region. The lithospheric mantle density in the study area varies from 3240 to 3295 kg/m3, as estimated using empirical equations. Relatively low lithospheric mantle densities are determined to occur beneath the Yerer-Tullu-Wellel Volcanotectonic Lineament and Boru-Toru Structural High. 3D gravity models computed for the study area show thickening of the bottom interfaces of the top layer, upper and lower crystalline basement depths when going from the rift toward the western and eastern plateaus. This crustal thickening is evidenced by the associated low CBA (approximately − 285 mGal) observed over the plateaus.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

source seismic experiment profiles across and along the MER. Red stars and green dots show locations of seismological determined Moho depths by Keranen et al. (2009) and Dugda et al. (2005), respectively

Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

References

  • Agostini A, Bonini M, Corti G, Sani F, Manetti P (2011) Distribution of quaternary deformation in the central main Ethiopian Rift. East Africa Tectonics 30:TC4010. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010TC002833

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Araffa SAS, Sabet HS, Mahmoud MH (2019) Tectonics mapping using geophysical data around Nuweiba area, Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai. Egypt NRIAG J Astr Geophys 8(1):73–83. https://doi.org/10.1080/20909977.2019.1615802

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Armitage JJ, Ferguson DJ, Goes S, Hammond JOS, Calais E, Rychert CA, Harmon N (2015) Upper mantle temperature and the onset of extension and break-up in Afar, Africa. Earth Planet Sci Lett 418:78–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2015.02.039

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Armitage JJ, Petersen KD, Pérez-Gussinyé M (2018) The role of crustal strength in controlling magmatism and melt chemistry during rifting and break-up. Geochem Geophys Geosyst. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GC007326

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Artemieva IM (2009) The continental lithosphere: reconciling thermal, seismic, and petrologic data. Lithos 109:23–46

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ball PW, White NJ, Maclennan J, Stephenson SN (2021) Global influence of mantle temperature and plate thickness on intraplate volcanism. Nat Commun 12:2045. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22323-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bastow ID, Stuart GW, Kendall JM, Ebinger CJ (2005) Upper-mantle seismic structure in a region of incipient continental breakup: Northern Ethiopian rift. Geophys J Int 162(2):479–493. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2005.02666.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bastow ID, Keir D, Daily E (2011) The Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment (EAGLE): probing the transition from continental rifting to incipient sea floor spreading, in volcanism and devolution of the African Lithosphere (eds. Beccaluva, L., Bianchini, G., and M. Wilson, M.) Spec. Pap Geol Soc Am 478:1–26

    Google Scholar 

  • Bastow ID, Nyblade AA, Stuart GW, Rooney TO, Benoit MH (2008) Rifting at the edge of the African low velocity anomaly. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 9022:Q12022. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GC002107

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Benoit MB, Nyblade AA, Pasyanos ME (2006) Crustal thinning between the Ethiopian and East African Plateaus from modeling Rayleigh wave dispersion. Geophys Res Lett 33:L13301. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL025687

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Berckhemer H, Baier B, et al.,( 1975) Deep seismic soundings in the Afar region and on the highland of Ethiopia. In: Pilger, A. and Rosler, A. (eds) Afar Depression of Ethiopia. Schweizerbart, Stuttgart, I, pp 89–107.

  • Boccaletti M, Getaneh A, Tortorici L (1992) The Main Ethiopian Rift: an example of oblique rifting. Annales Tectonicae 6:20–25

    Google Scholar 

  • Boccaletti M, Bonini M, Mazzuoli R, Abebe B, Piccardi L, Tortorici L (1998) Quaternary oblique extensional tectonics in the Ethiopian Rift (Horn of Africa). Tectonophysics 287:97–116

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bonini M, Souriot T, Boccaletti M, Brun JP (1997) Successive orthogonal and oblique extension episodes in a rift zone: laboratory experiments with application to the Ethiopian Rift. Tectonics 16:347–362

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bonini M, Corti G, Innocenti F, Manetti P, Mazzarini F, Tsegaye A and Pecskay Z (2005) Evolution of the Main Ethiopian Rift in the frame of Afar and Kenya rifts propagation, retrieved from. https://doi.org/10.1029/2004TC001680 on 20.11.2019.

  • Bown JW, White RS (1995) Effect of finite extension rate on melt generation at rifted continental margins. J Geophys Res 100(B9):18011–18029. https://doi.org/10.1029/94JB01478

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Braitenberg C, Wienecke S, Wang Y (2006) Basement structure from satellite- derived gravity field: south China Sea ridge. J Geophys Res 111:B05407

    Google Scholar 

  • Chambers EL, Harmon N, Keir D, Rychert CA (2019) Using ambient noise to image the northern East African Rift. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 20:2091–2109. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GC008129

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chapman DS (1986) Thermal gradients in the continental crust. Geol Soc London Spec Publ 24:63–70

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chorowicz J, Collet B, Bonavia FF, Korme T (1994) Northwest to north–northwest extension direction in the Ethiopian Rift deduced from the orientation of extension structures and fault slip analysis. Geological Soc Am Bull 105:1560–1570

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Civiero C, Hammond JOS, Goes S, Fishwick S, Ahmed A, Ayele A, Doubre C, Goitom B, Keir D, Kendall JM, Leroy S, Ogubazghi G, Rumpker G, Stuart GW (2015) Multiple mantle upwellings in the transition zone beneath the northern East-African Rift system from relative P wave travel-time tomography. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 16:2949–2968. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GC005948

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Civiero C, Goes S, Hammond JOS, Fishwick S, Ahmed A, Ayele A, Doubre C, Goitom B, Keir D, Kendall JM, Ogubazghi G, Rumpker G, Stuart GW (2016) Small-scale thermal upwellings under the northern East African Rift from S travel time tomography. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 121:7395–7408. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JB013070

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cornwell DG, Mackenzie GD, England RW, Maguire PKH, Asfaw L, Oluma B (2006) Northern main Ethiopian rift crustal structure from new high-precision gravity data. In: Yirgu, G., Ebinger, C.J., Maguire, P.K.H. (Eds.), the Afar Volcanic Province within the East African Rift System: Geological Society Special Publication, vol 259, pp 307–321.

  • Cornwell DG, Maguire PKH, England RW, Stuart GW (2010) Imaging detailed crustal structure and magmatic intrusion across the Ethiopian Rift using a dense linear broadband array. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 11:Q0AB03. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GC002637

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Corti G (2009) Continental rift evolution: from rift initiation to incipient break-up in the Main Ethiopian Rift, East Africa. Earth Sci Rev 96:1–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2009.06.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Corti G, Sani F, Philippon M, Sokoutis D, Willingshofer E, Molin P (2013) Quaternary Volcano-tectonic activity in the Sodo region, western margin of the Southern Main Ethiopian Rift. Tectonics 32:861–879

    Google Scholar 

  • Courtier AM, Jackson MG, Lawrence JF, Wang Z, Lee CTA, Halama R, Warren JM, Workman R, Xu W, Hirschmann MM, Larson AM, Hart SR, Bertelloni CL, Stixrude L, Chen WP (2007) Correlation of seismic and petrologic thermometers suggests deep thermal anomalies beneath hotspots. Earth Plan Sci Lett 264:308–316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2007.10.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Courtillot V, Arcache J, Landre F, Bonhommet N, Montigny R, Fe´raud G (1984) Episodic spreading and rift propagation: new paleomagnetic and geochronologic data from the Afar nascent passive margin. J Geophys Res 89:3315–3333

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Daly E, Keir D, Ebinger C, Stuart G, Bastow I, Ayele A (2008) Crustal tomographic imaging of a transitional continental rift: The Ethiopian rift. Geophys J Int 172(3):1033–1048. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03682.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Desissa M, Johnson NE, Whaler KA, Hautot S, Fisseha S, Dawes GJK (2013) A mantle magma reservoir beneath an incipient mid-ocean ridge in Afar Ethiopia. Nat Geosci 6(10):861–865. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1925

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Di Paola GM (1972) The Ethiopian Rift Valley. Bull Vulcanol 36:517–560

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dogru F, Pamukcu O, Gonenc T, Yildiz H (2018) Lithospheric structure of western Anatolia and the Aegean Sea using GOCE-based gravity field models. Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica Ed Applicata 59(2):135–160. https://doi.org/10.4430/bgta0231

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dugda MT, Nyblade AA, Jordi J, Langston CA, Ammon CJ, Simiyu S (2005) Crustal structure in Ethiopia and Kenya from receiver function analysis: implications for rift development in Eastern Africa. J Geophys Res 110(B1):B01303. https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JB003065

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dugda MT, Nyblade AA, Julia J (2007) Thin lithosphere beneath the Ethiopian plateau revealed by a joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and receiver functions. J Geophys Res 112:B08305. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JB004918

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ebinger C, Casey M (2001) Continental breakup in magmatic province. Geology 29:527–530

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ebinger GJ, Yemane T, Woldegabriel G, Aronson JL, Walter RC (1993) Late eocene-recent volcanism and faulting in the southern main Ethiopian Rift. J Geological Soc London 150:99–108

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Egorkin AV, Ziuganov SK, Chernyshev NM (1984) The upper mantle of Siberia. Proc Int Geol Congr 27(8):26–29

    Google Scholar 

  • Eppelbaum LV, Katz YuI (2017) A new regard on the tectonic map of the Arabian-African region inferred from the satellite gravity analysis. Acta Geophys 65:607–626

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eppelbaum L, Katz Yu, Klokochnik J, Kosteletsky J, Zheludev V, Ben-Avraham Z (2018) Tectonic insights into the Arabian-African region inferred from a comprehensive examination of satellite gravity big data. Global Planet Change 171:65–87

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eshetu A, Mammo T, Tilmann F (2021) Imaging the Ethiopian Rift region using Transdimensional hierarchical seismic noise tomography. Pure Appl Geophys. https://doi.org/10.10007/s00024-021-02880-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Evariste NH, Genyou L, Tahod TC, Joseph K, Severin N (2014) Crustal structure beneath Cameroon from EGM2008. Geodesy Geodyn 5:1–10

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ferguson DJ, MacLennan J, Bastow ID, Pyle DM, Jones SM, Keir D, Yirgu G (2013) Melting during late-stage rifting in Afar is hot and deep. Nature 499(7456):70–73. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12292

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fullea J, Fernàndez M, Zeyen H (2006) Lithospheric structure in the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition zone (southern Spain, northern Morocco): a simple approach from regional elevation and geoid data. CR Geosci 338:140–151

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Globig J, Fernàndez M, Torne M, Vergés J, Robert A, Faccenna C (2016) New insights into the crust and lithospheric mantle structure of Africa from elevation, geoid, and thermal analysis. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 121:5389–5424. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JB012972

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greenfield T, Keir D, Kendall JM, Ayele A (2019) Seismicity of the Bora-Tullu Moye volcanic field, 2016–2017. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 20:548–570. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GC007648

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hammond JOS, Kendall J-M, Stuart GW, Keir D, Ebinger CJ, Ayele A, Belachew M (2011) The nature of the crust beneath the Afar triple junction: Evidence from receiver functions. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 12(12):1–24. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GC003738

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hammond JOS, Kendall J-M, Wookey J, Stuart GW, Keir D, Ayele A (2014) Differentiating flow, melt, or fossil seismic anisotropy beneath Ethiopia. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 15:1878–1894. https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GC005185

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hayward NJ, Ebinger CJ (1996) Variations in the along-axis segmentation of the Afar Rift system. Tectonics 15:244–257. https://doi.org/10.1029/95TC02292

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Herzberg C, Asimow PD, Arndt N, Niu YL, Lesher CM, Fitton JG, Cheadle MJ, Saunders AD (2007) Temperatures in ambient mantle and plumes: constraints from basalts, picrites, and komatiites. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 8:Q02006. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GC001390

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hirt C, Claessens SJ, Fecher T, Kuhn M, Pail R, Rexer M (2013) New ultrahigh resolution picture of Earth’s gravity field. Geophys Res Lett. https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50838

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hoggard MJ, Austermann J, Randel C and Stephenson S (2020) Observational estimates of dynamic topography through space and time, in Mantle convection and surface expressions (eds Marquardt, H., Ballmer, M., Cottaar, S. and Konter J.) AGU Geophysical Monograph Series. (Washington, DC, 2021). https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119528609.ch15.

  • Jentzsch G, Mahatsente R, Jahr T (2000) Three dimensional inversion of gravity data from the main Ethiopian rift. Phys Chem Earth (a) 25:365–373

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Julia J, Ammon CJ, Nyblade AA (2005) Evidence for mafic lower crust in Tanzania, East Africa, from joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersion velocities. Geophys J Int 162(2):555–569

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaban MK, El Khrepy S, Al-Arifi N, Tesauro M, Stolk W (2016) Three dimensional density model of the upper mantle in the Middle East: Interaction of diverse tectonic processes. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 121:5349–5364. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JB012755

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kassa M, Alemu A, Muluneh A (2021) Determination of gravity and isostatic Moho: implications for the evolution of rifting in the central Main Ethiopian Rift. J Afr Earth Sc. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2021.104350

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Katsura T, Yamada H, Nishikawa O, Song M, Kubo A, Shinmei T, Yokoshi S, Aizawa Y, Yoshino T, Walter MJ, Ito E (2004) Olivine-wadsleyite transition in the system (Mg, Fe)2SiO4. J Geophys Res: Solid Earth. 109:B02209

    Google Scholar 

  • Katsura T, Yoneda A, Yamazaki D, Yoshino T, Ito E (2010) Adiabatic temperature profile in the mantle. Phys Earth Plan Int 183:212–218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pepi.2010.07.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keir D, Kendall JM, Ebinger C, Stuart G (2005) Variations in late syn-rift melt alignment inferred from shear-wave splitting in crustal earthquakes beneath the Ethiopian rift. Geophys Res Lett 32:L23308. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL024150

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keir D, Ebinger C, Stuart G, Daly E, Ayele A (2006) Strain accommodation by magmatism and faulting as rifting proceeds to breakup: Seismicity of the northern Ethiopian Rift. J Geophys Res 111:B05314. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JB003748

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keir D, Bastow ID, Whaler KA, Daly E, Cornwell DG, Hautot S (2009) Lower crustal earthquakes near the Ethiopian rift induced by magmatic processes. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 10:QOAB02. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GC002382

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kendall JM, Stuart G, Ebinger C, Bastow I, Keir D (2005) Magma assisted rifting in Ethiopia. Nature 433:146–148

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kendall JM, Pilidou S, Keir D, Bastow ID, Stuart GW and Ayele A (2006) Mantle upwellings melt migration and the rifting of Africa: Insights from seismic anisotropy. In: Yirgu, G., Ebinger, C.J. and Maguire, P.K.H. (eds) The Afar Volcanic Province within the East African Rift System. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 259, pp 55–72.

  • Keranen K, Klemperer SL (2008) Discontinuous and diachronous evolution of the Main Ethiopian Rift: Implications for the development of continental rifts. Earth Planet Sci Lett 265(1–2):96–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2007.09.038

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keranen K, Klemperer SL, Gloaguen R, EAGLE working group, (2004) Imaging a proto- ridge axis in the Main Ethiopian Rift. Geology 32:949–952

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keranen K, Klemperer SL, Julia J, Lawrence JL, Nyblade A (2009) Low lower crustal velocity across Ethiopia: is the Main Ethiopian Rift a narrow rift in a hot craton? Geochem Geophys Geosyst 10:Q0AB01. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GC002293

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Korme T, Acocella V, Abebe B (2004) The role of pre-existing structures in the origin, propagation and architecture of the faults in the Main Ethiopian Rift. Gondwana Res 7:467–479

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kurz T, Gloaguen R, Ebinger C, Casey M, Abebe B (2007) Deformation distribution and type in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER): a remote sensing study. J Afr Earth Sc 48(2–3):100–114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2006.10.008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lachenbruch AH, Morgan P (1990) Continental extension, magmatism, and elevation formal relations and rules of thumb. Tectonophysics 174:39–62

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lavayssiére A, Rychert C, Harmon N, Keir D, Hammond JOSF, Kendall JM, Doubre C, Leroy S (2018) Imaging Lithospheric discontinuities beneath the northern East African Rift using S to P receiver functions. American Geophysical Union.

  • Le Turdu C, Tiercelin JJ, Gibert E, Travi Y, Lezzar K, Richert J, Massault M, Gasse F, Bonnefille R, Decobert M, Gensous B, Jeudy V, Tamrat E, Mohamed MU, Martens K, Balemwal A, Chernet T, Williamson D, Taieb M (1999) The Ziway-Shala lake basin system, Main Ethiopian Rift: influence of volcanism, tectonics, and climatic forcing on basin formation and sedimentation. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 150:135–177

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Logatchev NA, Zorin YA (1992) Baikal rift zone—Structure and geodynamics. Tectonophysics 208:273–286

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mackenzie GH, Thybo GH, Maguire P (2005) Crustal velocity structure across the Main Ethiopian Rift: results from two-dimensional wide angle seismic modeling. Geophys J Int 162:994–1006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maguire PKH, Keller GR, Klemperer SL, Mackenzie GD, Keranen K, Harder S, O’Reilly B, Thybo H, Asfaw L, Khan MA, Ameha M (2006) Crustal structure of the Northern Main Ethiopian Rift from the EAGLE controlled source survey; a snapshot of incipient lithospheric break up. In: Yirgu, G., Ebinger, C.J., Maguire, P.K.H. (Eds.). The Afar Volcanic Province within the East African Rift System: Geological Society Special Publication, vol. 259, pp. 269–291.

  • Mahatsente R, Jentzsch G, Jahr T (1999) Crustal structure of the Main Ethiopian Rift from gravity data: 3- dimensional modeling. Tectonophysics 313:363–382

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mahatsente R, Jentzsch G, Jahr T (2000) Three-dimensional inversion of gravity data from the main Ethiopian rift. J Afr Earth Sc 31:451–466

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Makris J, Ginzburg A (1987) The Afar Depression: transition between continental rifting and sea floor spreading. Tectonophysics 141:199–214

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mammo T (2013) Crustal Structure of the Flood Basalt Province of Ethiopia from constrained 3D Gravity Inversion. Pure Appl Geophys 170:2185–2206

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mariita N, Keller R (2007) An integrated geophysical study of the northern Kenya rift. J Afr Earth Sci 48:80–94

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mazzarini F, Keir D, Isola I (2013) Spatial relationship between earthquakes and volcanic vents in the central-northern Main Ethiopian Rift. J Volcanol Geoth Res 262:123–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2013.05.007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McKenzie D (1967) Some remarks on heat flow and gravity anomalies. J Geophys Res 72:6261–6273

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McKenzie D, Jackson J, Priestley K (2005) Thermal structure of oceanic and continental lithosphere. Earth Planet Sci Lett 233:337–349

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mickus K (2007) Gravity analysis of the main Ethiopian rift. J Afr Earth Sc 48:59–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2007.02.008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mohr P (1962) The Ethiopian Rift System. Bull Geophys Obs of Addis Ababa 5:33–62

    Google Scholar 

  • Muluneh A, Kidane T, Corti G, Keir D (2018) Constraints on fault and crustal strength of the Main Ethiopian Rift from formal inversion of earthquake focal mechanism data. Tectonophysics 731–732:172–180

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Muluneh AA, Brune S, Illsley-Kemp F, Corti G, Keir D, Glerum A, Kidane T, Mori J (2020) Mechanism for deep crustal seismicity: insight from modeling of deformation processes at the Main Ethiopian Rift. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 21:e2020GC008935. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GC008935

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nafe JE, Drake CL (1957) Variation with depth in shallow and deep water marine sediments of porosity, density and the velocities of compressional and shear waves. Geophysics 22:523–552

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Oldenburg DW (1974) The inversion and interpretation of gravity anomalies. Geophysics 39:526–536

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ono S (2008) Experimental constraints on the temperature profile in the lower mantle. Phys Earth Plan Int 170:267–273. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pepi.2008.06.033

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parker L (1973) The rapid calculation of potential field anomalies. Geophys J Roy Astron Soc 31:447–455

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parsons B, Sclater JG (1977) An analysis of the variation of ocean floor bathymetry and heat flow with age. J Geophys Res 82:803–827

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pinzuti P, Humler E, Manighetti I, Gaudemer Y (2013) Petrological constraints on melt generation beneath the Asal Rift (Djibouti) using quaternary basalts. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 14(8):2932–2953. https://doi.org/10.1002/ggge.20187

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Popowski T, Connard G and French R (2006) GMSYS-3D: 3D Gravity and magnetic modelling for Oasis Montaj-User Guide. Northwest Associates, Corvallis, Oregon, p 32.

  • Pouliquen G, Connard G, Kearns H, Gouiza M, Paton D (2017) Public domain satellite gravity inversion off shore Somalia combining layered-Earth and voxel based modelling. First Break 35(9):73–79

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reynolds JM (2011) An introduction to applied and environmental geophysics. John Wiley and Sons, NY, p 806

    Google Scholar 

  • Rooney T, Furman T, Bastow I, Dereje A, Gezahegn Y (2007) Lithospheric modification during crustal extension in the Main Ethiopian Rift. J Geophys Res 112:10201–10222

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rooney TO, Herzberg C, Bastow ID (2012) Elevated mantle temperature beneath East Africa. Geology 40(1):27–30

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rooney TO, Bastow ID, Keir D, Mazzarini F, Movsesian E, Grosfils EB, Zimbelman JR, Ramsey MS, Ayalew D, Yirgu G (2014) The protracted development of focused magmatic intrusion during continental rifting. Tectonics 33:875–897. https://doi.org/10.1002/2013TC003514

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rychert CA, Hammond JOS, Harmon N, Kendall JM, Keir D, Ebinger CJ, Stuart GW (2012) Volcanism in the Afar Rift sustained by decompression melting with minimal plume influence. Nat Geosci 5(6):406–409. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1455

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Salem A, Green C, Campbell S, Fairhead JD, Cascone L, Moorhead L (2013) Moho depth and sediment thickness estimation beneath the Red Sea derived from satellite and terrestrial gravity data. Geophysics 78(5):G89–G101. https://doi.org/10.1190/GEO2012-0150.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shorttle O, Maclennan J, Lambart S (2014) Quantifying lithological variability in the mantle. Earth Planet Sci Lett 395:24–40

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Siegburg M, Gernon TM, Bull JM, Keir D, Barfod DN, Taylor RN, Abebe B, Ayele A (2018) Geological evolution of the Boset-Bericha volcanic complex, Main Ethiopian Rift: 40 Ar/39Ar evidence for episodic pleistocene to holocene volcanism. J Volcanol Geoth Res 351:115–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.12.014

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stuart GW, Bastow ID, Ebinger CJ (2006) Crustal structure of the northern Main Ethiopian Rift from receiver function studies, In the Afar Volcanic Province within the East African Rift System. (eds. Yirgu G., Ebinger C.J., and Maguire P.K.H.) Geological Society Special Publication 259, pp 253–267.

  • Tefera M, Chernet T and Haro W (1990) Geological Map of Ethiopia. Scale 1:2,000,000. Addis Ababa: Ethiopian Institute of Geological Survey.

  • Telford WM, Geldart L, Sheriff R (1990) Applied geophysics, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Tessema A, Antoine LAG (2004) Processing and interpretation of the gravity field of the East African Rift: implication for crustal extension. Tectonophysics 394:87–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2004.07.057

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tiberi C, Ebinger C, Ballu V, Stuart G, Oluma B (2005) Inverse models of gravity data from the Red Sea Aden East African rifts triple junction zone. Geophys J Int 163:775–787. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2005.02736.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Torne M, Fernàndez M, Vergés J, Ayala C, Salas MC, Jiménez-Munt I, Buffett GG, Díaz J (2015) Crust and mantle lithospheric structure of the Iberian Peninsula deduced from potential field modeling and thermal analysis. Tectonophysics 663:419–433

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Upcott NM, Mukasa RK, Ebinger CJ (1996) Along-axis segmentation and isostasy in the Western rift, East Africa. J Geophys Res 101:3247–3268

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang CY, Mooney WD, Wang X, Wu J, Lou H, Wang F (2002) Study on 3-d velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in Sichuan-Yunnan region, China. Acta Seismol Sin 1:1–16

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang Y (1999) An analysis for the continental heat flow in China. PhD. thesis in Geological Sciences, Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

  • Weeraratne DS, Forsyth DW, Fischer KM, Nyblade AA (2003) Evidence for an upper mantle plume beneath the Tanzanian Craton from Rayleigh wave tomography. J Geophys Res B Solid Earth and Planets 108:17

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Whaler KA and Hautot S (2006) The electrical resistivity structure of the crust beneath the northern Main Ethiopian Rift. In G. Yirgu, C. J. Ebinger, and P. K. H. Maguire (Eds.), The Afar volcanic province within the East African Rift System, Geological Society of London, Special Publication (Vol. 259, pp. 293–305). London, UK.

  • WoldeGabriel G, Aronson JL, Walter RC (1990) Geology, geochronology, and rift basin development in the central sector of the Main Ethiopia Rift. Geological Soc Am Bull 102:439–458

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wolfenden E, Ebinger C, Yirgu G, Deino A, Ayale D (2004) Evolution of the northern Main Ethiopian rift: birth of a triple junction. Earth Planet Sci Lett 224(1–2):213–228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2004.04.022

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xuan S, Jin S, Chen Y (2020) Determination of the isostatic and gravity Moho in the east China sea and its implications. J Asian Earth Sci 187.http://www.elsevier. Com/locate/jseaes.

  • Zang SX, Liu YG, Ning JY (2002) Thermal structure of lithosphere in north China. Chin J Geophys 45:51–62

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zeyen H, Ayarza P, Fernandez M, Rimi A (2005) Lithospheric structure under the western African-European plate boundary: a transect across the atlas mountains and the gulf of cadiz. Tectonics. https://doi.org/10.1029/2004tc001639

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zorin YA, Kozhevnikov VM, Novoselova MR, Turutanov EK (1989) Thickness of the lithosphere beneath the Baikal rift zone and adjacent regions. Tectonophysics 168:327–337

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank all developers and providers of data used in this study and the International Gravimetric Bureau (IGB) for making the gravity data freely available for the public (http://ddfe.curtin.edu.au/gravitymodels/GGMplus/data/). We would like to thank two anonymous reviewers for providing constructive comments and improving the quality of the manuscript. We want to thank also Prof. Ramon Zuñiga, Co-Editor-in-Chief, and Prof. Teresa Grabowska, Associate Editor, for valuable suggestions and comments.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Muluken Kassa.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Edited by Prof. Teresa Grabowska (ASSOCIATE EDITOR) / Prof. Ramon Zuñiga (CO-EDITOR-IN-CHIEF).

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kassa, M., Alemu, A. & Muluneh, A. Structure of the crust and lithospheric mantle beneath the central main Ethiopian rift. Acta Geophys. (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11600-022-00853-0

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11600-022-00853-0

Keywords

  • Crustal structure
  • Crustal extension
  • LAB depth
  • LAB temperature
  • Lithospheric mantle density
  • Asthenospheric uplift
  • Main Ethiopian rift