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Evaluating lateral riverbank erosion with sediment yield through integrated model in lower Gangetic floodplain, India

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One of the natural disasters caused by river meandering is riverbank erosion, which creates social, economic, and environmental problems in the riparian zone and serves as a source of increasing sedimentation levels in the river. Riverbank erosion and bank failure create a complex cyclical process, such as riverbank retreat, which cannot be easily measured and predicted by any model. The meandering flow along the Bhagirathi-Hooghly river has created riverbank erosion and riverbank retreat conditions in several areas, through which measuring bank stability and erosion is quite complex. As a result, the BSTEM model, integrating with HEC-RAS, has been used in this article to measure riverbank erosion and retreat accurately. Riverbank erosion and retreat data for 2019–2020 have been simulated based on data observed from 2016 to 2018 for accurate measurement. In addition, the total sediment yielded from the river bank has been calibrated and simulated with the help of sediment transport formulation in HEC-RAS, which indicates a gradual increase in river erosion at present (2019–2020). This model is expected to help formulate government policy on protecting riverbank erosion and river restoration in the future.

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The authors show sincere gratitude to Kolkata port trust (hydrography section) and Irrigation and Waterways Directorate, Government of West Bengal for providing the hydrodynamic, past bathymetric, and discharge data of the sub-catchment section (Nabadwip-Kalyani stretch) of Bhagirathi-Hooghly River. The authors show sincere gratitude to IMD (Indian Meteorological Department), topographical map from SOI (Survey of India) and soil information from NBSS-LUP (The National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use planning) for providing various climatic, topographical and soil data to prepare susceptibility map of the current basin. The authors also acknowledge the Digital Library of the School of Water Resources Engineering, Jadavpur University, for allowing access to all the GIS and statistical software.


Any government or non-government organization did not fund this research article.

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All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis and also the first draft of the manuscript was written by AG. MBR and PKR read, correct and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Malabika Biswas Roy.

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There is no conflict of interest among the authors.

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Edited By Dr. Michael Nones (CO-EDITOR-IN-CHIEF).

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Ghosh, A., Roy, M.B. & Roy, P.K. Evaluating lateral riverbank erosion with sediment yield through integrated model in lower Gangetic floodplain, India. Acta Geophys. 70, 1769–1795 (2022).

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