Spatiotemporal variability in spate irrigation systems in Khirthar National Range, Sindh, Pakistan (case study)
- 59 Downloads
Satellite remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) have been used successfully to monitor and assess the land use and land cover (LULC) dynamics and their impacts on people and the environment. LULC change detection is essential for studying spatiotemporal conditions and for proposing better future planning and development options. The current research analyzes the detection of spatiotemporal variability of spate irrigation systems using remote sensing and GIS in the Khirthar National Range, Sindh Province of Pakistan. We use Landsat images to study the dynamics of LULC using ArcGIS software and categorize five major LULC types. We obtain secondary data related to precipitation and crop yield from the provincial department of revenue. The maximum likelihood supervised classification (MLSC) procedure, augmented with secondary data, reveals a significant increase of 86.25% in settlements, 83.85% in spate irrigation systems, and 65% in vegetation, and a substantial negative trend of 39.50% in water bodies and 20% in barren land during the period from 2013 to 2018. Our study highlights an increase in settlements due to the inflow of local population for better means of living and an increase in spate irrigation systems, which indicates the water conservation practices for land cultivation and human purpose lead to the shrinkage of water bodies. The confusion matrix using Google Earth data to rectify modeled (classified) data, which showed an overall accuracy of 82.8%–92%, and the Kappa coefficient estimated at 0.80–0.90 shows the satisfactory results of the LULC classification. The study suggests the need to increase water storage potential with the appropriate water conservation techniques to enhance the spate irrigation system in the hilly tracts for sustainable developments, which mitigates drought impact and reduces migration rate by providing more opportunities through agricultural activities in the study area.
KeywordsSpate irrigation LULC Remote sensing GIS Water bodies Vegetation Confusion matrix Khirthar National Range
The current research was conducted using the GIS and Computer Labs of the US-Pakistan Center for Advanced Studies in Water (USPCAS-W)/Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro. We also acknowledged the efforts, dedications, and knowledge of the local people who are engaged in the existing spate irrigation system; their dedicated efforts and expertise played a vital role in developing the current research. With great pleasure, the authors acknowledge the support provided by the FBLN/MetaMeta under “Africa to Asia and Back: Testing Adaptation in Flood Based Farming Systems” and the cooperation and supervision of the faculty of the USPCAS-W. Last but not least, many thanks go to USAID for providing technical support for the establishment of the Center.
No funding was received.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- El Bastawesy M (2014) Hydrological scenarios of the renaissance Dam in Thiopia and its hydro-environmental impact on the Nile downstream. J Hydrol Eng. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0001112 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Girma H, Hassan R (2014) Drivers of land-use change in the southern nations, nationalities and people’s region of Ethiopia. Afr J Agric Resour Econ 9(2):148–164Google Scholar
- Haack B, Mahabir R (2019) Optical and radar data analysis for land use land cover mapping in Peru. Remote Sens Land 3(1):15–27Google Scholar
- International Fund of Agricultural Development (IFAD) (2010) Spate Irrigation, Livelihood, Improvements, and Adaptation to Climate Change. MetaMeta & IFAD (2010), p 4Google Scholar
- Jain Figueroa A (2019) Sustainable agricultural management: a systems approach for examining food security tradeoffs (Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology)Google Scholar
- Mehari A, van Steenbergen F, Schultz B (2007) Water rights and rules, and management in Spate irrigation systems in Eritrea, Yemen, and Pakistan. Community-based water law and water resource management reform in developing countries, p 114Google Scholar
- Mercy MW (2015) Assessment of the effects of climate change on land use and land cover using remote sensing: a case study from Kenya. Working paper series. Dresden nexus conference. Dnc2015/03Google Scholar
- Milanova E, Telnova N (2007) Land-use and land-cover change study in the transboundary zone of Russia-Norway. Man in the landscape across frontiers: Landscape and land use change in central European border regions. In: CD-ROM conference proceedings of the IGU/LUCC central Europe conference, pp 123–133Google Scholar
- Nayak S, Mandal M (2012) Impact of land-use and land-cover changes on temperature trends over Western India. Curr Sci 102(8):1166–1173Google Scholar
- Olaoye IA, Ortiz J, Jefferson A, Shakoor A (2019) Landuse/landcover (LULC) change modeling of Old Woman Creek (OWC)Watershed using Remote Sensing and GIS. Environmental Science & Design Research Initiative. Paper 35. https://digitalcommons.kent.edu/esdri2019/35
- Pakistan’s Bureau of Census (2017). http://www.pbs.gov.pk/sites/default/files/PAKISTAN%20TEHSIL%20WISE%20FOR%20WEB%20CENSUS_2017.pdf
- Rawat JS, Kumar M (2015) Monitoring land use/cover change using remote sensing and GIS techniques: a case study of Hawalbagh block, district Almora, Uttarkhand, IndiaGoogle Scholar
- Satya BA, Shashi M, Pratap D (2020) Effect of temporal-based land use–land cover change pattern on rainfall runoff. In: Applications of geomatics in civil engineering. Springer, Singapore, pp 175–182Google Scholar