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Geostatistical analysis of hydrochemical variations and nitrate pollution causes of groundwater in an alluvial fan plain

  • Shiyang Yin
  • Yong XiaoEmail author
  • Xiaomin Gu
  • Qichen Hao
  • Honglu Liu
  • Zhongyong Hao
  • Geping Meng
  • Xingyao Pan
  • Qiuming Pei
Research Article - Hydrology
  • 19 Downloads

Abstract

Geostatistics was used in a typical alluvial fan to reveal its applicability to spatial distribution analysis and controlling mechanisms of groundwater chemistry. Normal distribution test and optimal geostatistical interpolation models for various groundwater quality indicators were discussed in this study. The optimal variogram model of each indicator was determined using prediction error analysis. The influences of human activities and structural factors on the groundwater chemistry were also determined by variability intensity and the sill ratio. The results showed that nitrate content can be served as groundwater quality indicator, which was most sensitive to human activities. The nitrate concentration of both shallow and deep groundwater showed a decreasing trend from the northwest to the southeast. In addition, the spatial distribution of groundwater nitrate was associated with the land-use type and the lithological properties of aquifer. Rapid urbanization in the northwestern part intensified groundwater extraction and aggravated the pollutant input. The central area showed little increase in nitrate content in the shallow and deep groundwater, and the effect of lateral recharge from the upstream water on the deep groundwater in the central area was greater than that of the vertical recharge from shallow groundwater. The present study suggests that geostatistics is helpful for analyzing the spatial distribution and distinguishing the influences of anthropogenic and natural factors on groundwater chemistry.

Keywords

Geostatistics Groundwater chemistry Human activities Nitrate pollution Spatial variation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was financially supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2019MS028; 2682019CX14), the National Basic Resources Survey Program of China (2017FY100405) and China Geological Survey (DD20160238).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences & Polish Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Renewable EnergyNorth China Electric Power UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Faculty of Geosciences and Environmental EngineeringSouthwest Jiaotong UniversityChengduChina
  3. 3.School of Geographic ScienceNantong UniversityNantongChina
  4. 4.Institute of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological ScienceShijiazhuangChina
  5. 5.Beijing Water Science and Technology InstituteBeijingChina
  6. 6.Beijing Daxing Water Resources BureauBeijingChina

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