A 32-year aridity analysis: a tool for better understanding on water resources management in Lebanon

  • Amin ShabanEmail author
  • Mohamad Awad
  • Ali J. Ghandour
  • Luciano Telesca
Research Article - Hydrology


Water scarcity has been well pronounced in the Middle East Region; however, Lebanon is still characterized by wet climate and sufficient water resources. It is a paradox that Lebanon is now under water stress, and many contradictory studies on the climate of Lebanon attributed water stress to the changing climate. Most of these studies were applied with incomplete climatic data records. Therefore, all management approaches were implemented after considering climate as a major influencer on water resources. In this study, the Emberger Aridity Index (EAi) was employed to investigate the climate regime of Lebanon over more than 30 years focusing on ten representative meteorological stations where comprehensive climatic records were analysed and supported by remotely sensed data. The EAi indicates that Lebanon is still characterized by humid climate, which conflicts with the concept of drought existence. Thus, 47% of the Lebanese territory is characterized by humid to sub-humid climate and 29% by semi-arid climate according to Emberger classification. This obviously shows that even the climate impact has a role on water scarcity, but it is not the principal influencer. The results of this study help applying new approaches for water management where the negative human interference should be accounted. It guides stakeholder and decision-maker to follow appropriate water and agricultural policies and strategies for better sustainable development.


Water deficit Increased temperature Human interference Rainfall patterns Middle East 



In the framework of Lebanese-Italian scientific cooperation, the authors would like to acknowledge the Lebanese and Italian institutes (CNRS-L and CNR) for their support and encouragement to finalize this research, which is a part series of published works. Also, thanks are extended to the Litani River Authority (LRA) for the valuable ground measures provided to accomplish this research.


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Copyright information

© Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences & Polish Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amin Shaban
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohamad Awad
    • 1
  • Ali J. Ghandour
    • 1
  • Luciano Telesca
    • 2
  1. 1.National Council for Scientific ResearchBeirutLebanon
  2. 2.Istituto di Metodologie per l’Analisi Ambientale, CNR, C.da S.LojaTitoItaly

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