Skip to main content

Alignment silkworms as seismic animal anomalous behavior (SAAB) and electromagnetic model of a fault: a theory and laboratory experiment

Abstract

Alignment of silkworms and fish, observed as seismic anomalous animal behavior (SAAB) prior to the Kobe earthquake, were duplicated in a laboratory by applying a pulsed electric field assuming SAAB as electrophysiological responses to the stimuli of seismic electric signals (SES). The animals became aligned perpendicularly to the field direction since their skeletal muscle had a higher resistivity perpendicular to the field direction than parallel to it. An electromagnetic model of a fault is proposed in which dipolar charges, ±q are generated due to the change of seismic stress, σ(t). From a mathematical model, dq/dt=−α(dσ/dt) − q/ɛρ, where α is the charge generation constant like a piezoelectric coefficient, ɛ, the dielectric constant and ρ, the resistivity of bedrock granite. A fault having a length 2a and a displacement or rock rupture time τ, during which the stress is changed, gives pulsed dipolar charge surface densities, +q(t, x) and −q(t, x+2a), or an apparent electric dipole moment of P(t)=2aQ(t)=2aAq(t)=aM 0[ερ/(τ-ερ)](e-1/τ-e-1/σρ) using the earthquake moment M 0. The fault displacement, D, its initial velocity, D′ and the stress drop, Δσ give τ=D/D′=(Δσ/σ 0)(α/β). The field fintensity, F, and seismic current density at a fault zone, J were calculated as F=q/ɛ and J=F/ρ′ using ρ′ of water as to give J=0.1-1 A/m2 sufficient to cause SAAB experimentally. The near-field ultra low frequency (ULF) waves generated by P(t) give SES reciprocally proportional to the distance R.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Bastian J, 1994. Electrosensory organs of aquatic animals. Physics Today, 47: 30

    Google Scholar 

  2. Biophysics Institute, Academica Sinica, 1997. Animals Informs Earthquake. Beijing, China. Japanese translation published by Nagasaki Publisher (in Japanese)

  3. Brady B T and Rowell G A, 1986. Laboratory investigation of the electrodynamics of rock fracture. Nature, 321: 488–492

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Bushirk R E, Frohlich C and Latha G V, 1981. Unusual animal behaviors before earthquakes: A review of possible sensory mechanisms. Rev Geophys and Space Phys, 19: 247–270

    Google Scholar 

  5. Carlson J M, Langer J S and Shaw B E, 1994. Dynamics of earthquake faults. Rev Mod Phys, 66: 657–670

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Derr J S, 1973. Earthquake lights: A review of observation and present theories. Bull Seis Sco Amer, 63: 2 177

    Google Scholar 

  7. Enomoto Y and Hashimoto H, 1990. Emission of charged particles from indentation fracture of rocks. Nature, 346: 641–643

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Finkelstein D and Powell J, 1970. Earthquake lighting. Nature, 228: 759–796

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Ikeya M, Miki T, Tanaka K, 1982. Dating of a fault with ESR of interfault materials. Science, 215:1392–1393

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Ikeya M, 1993. New Applications of Electron Spin Resonance—Dating, Dosimetry and Microscopy —. World Scientific, Singapore, 500

    Google Scholar 

  11. Ikeya M and Takaki S, 1996. Electromagnetic model of a fault for earthquake lightnings (EQLs). Jpn J Appl Phys, 35: L355-L357

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Ikeya M, Takaki S and Takashimizu D, 1996a. Electric shocks for seismic animal anomalous behaviors (SAABs). J Phys Sco Japan, 65: 710–712

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Ikeya M, Huruta H, Anzai H and Kajiwara N, 1996b. Electric field effects on rats and sparrows for seismic animal anomalies (SAAs). Jpn J Appl Phys, 65: 4587–4594

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Ikeya M, 1996. Electromagnetic phenomena and anomalous animal behaviors accompanying earthquakes. Kagaku, 66: 408–418 (in Japanese)

    Google Scholar 

  15. Ikeya M, Takaki S, Matsumoto H, et al., 1997. Pulsed charge model of a fault behavior producing seismic electric signal. J Circuit Systems and Computers, 7(3): 153–164

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Kanamoril H and Anderson D, 1975. Theoretical basis of some empirical relations in seismology. Bull Seism Sco Amer, 65: 1073–1095

    Google Scholar 

  17. Kumazawa K, 1961. Disturbances in electromagnetic fied in rocks due to piezoelectric effects in connection with seismic waves. J Sci Nagoya Univ, 9: 54–79

    Google Scholar 

  18. Lockner D A, Johston M J S and Byerlee J D, 1983. A mechanism to explain the generation of earthquake lights. Nature, 302: 28–33

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Misakian M A R, Sheppard D, Krause M E, et al., 1993. Biological, physical and electrical parameters for in vitro studies with ELF magnetic and electric fields: A primer. Bioelectromagnetics (Suppl.), 2(1): 1–73

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Musuya M, 1995. Jishi Namazu (Earthquake Catfish). Akashi Pubsher (in Japanese)

  21. Rikitake T, 1978. Biosystem behavior as an earthquake precursor. Tectonophysics, 51:1–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Scholz C H, 1990. The Mechanics of Earthquake and Faulting. Cambridge Press

  23. Terada T, 1931. On luminous phenomena accompanying earthquakes. Bull Earthquake Res Inst Tokyo Univ, 9: 225–255

    Google Scholar 

  24. Tributsch H, 1978. Do aerosol anomalies precede earthquake? Nature, 276: 606–608

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Varatos P and Alexopoulos K, 1984. Physical properties of the variations of the electric field of the Earth preceding earthquakes. Tectonophysics, 110: 73–98

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Volarovich M P and Sobolev G A, 1965. Use of piezoelectric effects of rocks for subsurface exploration of piezoelectric media. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR, 162: 11–13

    Google Scholar 

  27. Wadatusmi K, 1995. Statement 1519 of Earthquake Precursor. Tokyo: Tokyo Press, 265pp (in Japanese)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

About this article

Cite this article

Ikeya, M., Matsumoto, H. & Huang, QH. Alignment silkworms as seismic animal anomalous behavior (SAAB) and electromagnetic model of a fault: a theory and laboratory experiment. Acta Seimol. Sin. 11, 365–374 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11589-998-0045-3

Download citation

Key words

  • animal anomalous
  • piezoelectric
  • stress
  • fault
  • fish
  • silkworm