Earthquake Science

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 167–176 | Cite as

A new numerical technique for simulating the coupled seismic and electromagnetic waves in layered porous media

  • Hengxin RenEmail author
  • Qinghua Huang
  • Xiaofei Chen


Chen’s technique of computing synthetic seismograms, which decomposes every vector with a set of basis of orthogonality and completeness before applying the Luco-Apsel-Chen (LAC) generalized reflection and transmission coefficients method, is confirmed to be efficient in dealing with elastic waves in multi-layered media and accurate in any frequency range. In this article, we extend Chen’s technique to the computation of coupled seismic and electromagnetic (EM) waves in layered porous media. Expanding the involved mechanical and electromagnetic fields by a set of scalar and vector wave-function basis, we obtain the fundamental equations which are subsequently solved by using a recently developed version of the LAC generalized reflection and transmission coefficients method. Our approach and corresponding program is validated by reciprocity tests. We also show a numerical example of a two-layer model with an explosion source. The P-to-EM conversion waves radiated from the interface may have potential application.

Key words

synthetic seismogram porous media electrokinetic effect generalized reflection and transmission coefficients 

CLC number



  1. Aki K and Richards P G (1980). Quantitative Seismology: Theory and Methods. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  2. Biot M A (1962). Mechanics of deformation and acoustic propagation in porous media. J Appl Phys 33: 1 482–1 498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blau L W and Statham L (1936). Method and apparatus for seismic electric prospecting. US Patent No. 2054067.Google Scholar
  4. Bolève A, Crespy A, Revil A, Janod F and Mattiuzzo J L (2007a). Streaming potentials of granular media: Influence of the Dukhin and Reynolds numbers. J Geophys Res 112, B08204, doi:10.1029/2006JB004673.Google Scholar
  5. Bolève A, Revil A, Janod F, Mattiuzzo J L and Jardani A (2007b). Forward modeling and validation of a new formulation to compute self-potential signals associated with ground water flow. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 11: 1 661–1 671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bouchon M (1981). A simple method to calculate Green’s functions for elastic layered media. Bull Seism Soc Amer 71: 959–971.Google Scholar
  7. Bouchon M (2003). A review of the discrete wavenumber method. Pure Appl Geophys 160: 445–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bouchon M and Aki K (1977). Discrete wave-number representation of seismic-source wave fields. Bull Seism Soc Amer 67: 259–277.Google Scholar
  9. Chen X F (1993). A systematic and efficient method for computing seismic normal modes in layered half-space. Geophys J Int 115: 391–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen X F (1999). Seismogram synthesis in multi-layered half-space. Part I. Theoretical formulations. Earthquake Research in China 13: 149–174.Google Scholar
  11. Chen X F (2007). Generation and propagation of seismic SH waves in multi-layered media with irregular interfaces. Advances in Geophysics 48:191–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Frenkel J (1944). On the theory of seismic and seismoelectric phenomena in a moist soil. J Phys 8: 230–241.Google Scholar
  13. Garambois S and Dietrich M (2002). Full waveform numerical simulations of seismoelectromagnetic wave conversions in fluid-saturated stratified porous media. J Geophys Res 107, doi:10.1029/2001JB000316.Google Scholar
  14. Ge Z X and Chen X F (2008). An efficient approach for simulating wave propagation with the boundary element method in multilayered media with irregular interfaces. Bull Seism Soc Amer 98, doi: 10.1785/0120080920.Google Scholar
  15. Guan W and Hu H S (2008). Finite-difference modeling of electroseismic logging in a fluid saturated porous formation. J Comp Phys 228: 5 633–5 648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Haartsen M W and Pride S R (1997). Electroseismic waves from point sources in layered media. J Geophys Res 102: 24 745–24 769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Haines S S and Pride S R (2006). Seismoelectric numerical modeling on a grid. Geophysics 71: N57–N65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Han Q and Wang Z (2001). Time-domain simulation of SH-wave-induced electromagnetic field in heterogeneous porous media: A fast finite-element algorithm. Geophysics 66: 448–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hu H S, Guan W and Harris J (2007). Theoretical simulation of electroacoustic borehole logging in fluid-saturated porous formation. J Acoust Soc Am 122: 135–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hu H S, Liu J Q, Wang H B and Wang K X (2003). Simulation of acousto-electric well logging based on simplified Pride equations. Chinese J Geophys 46: 259–264 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  21. Huang Q (2002). One possible generation mechanism of co-seismic electric signals. Proc Japan Acad 78: 173–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Huang Q and Liu T (2006). Earthquakes and tide response of geoelectric potential field at the Niijima station. Chinese J Geophys 49: 1 745–1 754 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  23. Ivanov A G (1939). Effect of electrization of earth layers by elastic waves passing through them. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 24: 42–45.Google Scholar
  24. Johnston M J S (1997). Review of electric and magnetic fields accompanying seismic and volcanic activity. Surv Geophys 18: 441–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kennett B L N (1983). Seismic Wave Propagation in Stratified Media. Cambridge Univ Press, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Luco J E and Apsel R J (1983). On the Green’s function for a layered half-space: Part I. Bull Seism Soc Amer 73: 909–927.Google Scholar
  27. Martin B E and Thomson C J (1997). Modelling surface waves in anisotropic structures II: Examples. Phys Earth Planet Inter 103: 253–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Martner S and Sparks N (1959). The electroseismic effect. Geophysics 24:297–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nagao T, Enomoto Y, Fujinawa Y, Hata M, Hayakawa M, Huang Q, Izutsu J, Kushida Y, Maeda K, Oike K, Uyeda S and Yoshino T (2002). Electromagnetic anomalies associated with 1995 Kobe earthquake. J Geodyn 33:401–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Park J (1996). Surface waves in layered anisotropic media. Geophys J Int 126:173–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Park S K, Johnston M J S, Madden T R, Morgan F D and Morrison H F (1993). Electromagnetic precursors to earthquakes in the ULF band: A review of observations and mechanisms. Rev Geophys 31: 117–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pride S R (1994). Governing equations for the coupled electromagnetics and acoustics of porous media. Phys Rev B 50: 15 678–15 696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pride S R and Haartsen M W (1996). Electroseismic wave properties. J Acoust Soc Am 100: 1 301–1 315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Revil A and Leroy P (2004). Governing equations for ionic transport in porous shales. J Geophys Res 109, B03208, doi:10.1029/2006JB002755.Google Scholar
  35. Revil A and Linde N (2006). Chemico-electromechanical coupling in microporous media. J Coll Interf Sci 302: 682–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Revil A, Naudet V, Nouzaret J and Pessel M (2003). Principles of electrography applied to self-potential electrokinetic sources and hydrogeological applicatons. Water Resources Res 39: 1 114, doi: 10.1029/2001WR000916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Thompson R R (1936). The seismic electric effect. Geophysics 1: 327–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Thompson A H and Gist G A (1993). Geophysical applications of electrokinetic conversion. The Leading Edge 12: 1 169–1 173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Thompson A H, Hornbostel S, Burns J, Murray T, Raschke R, Wride J, McCammon P, Sumner J, Haake G, Bixby M, Ross W, White B S, Zhou M and Peczak P (2007). Field tests of electroseismic hydrocarbon detection. Geophysics 72: N1–N9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhu Z and Toksöz M N (1999). Seismoelectric and seismomagnetic measurements in fractured borehole models. The 69th Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 144–147.Google Scholar
  41. Zhu Z and Toksöz M N (2003). Crosshole seismoelectric measurements in borehole models with fractures. Geophysics 68: 1 519–1 524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhu Z, Haartsen M W and Toksöz M N (2000). Experimental studies of seismoelectric conversions in fluid-saturated porous media. J Geophys Res 105: 28 055–28 064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Seismological Society of China and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Earth and Space SciencesUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiChina
  2. 2.Department of Geophysics, School of Earth and Space SciencesPeking UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations