, Volume 25, Issue 9, pp 4459–4468 | Cite as

High performance of a carbon monoxide sensor based on a Pd-doped graphene-tin oxide nanostructure composite

  • Aminuddin Debataraja
  • Ni Luh Wulan Septiani
  • Brian YuliartoEmail author
  • Nugraha
  • Bambang Sunendar
  • Huda Abdullah
Original Paper


The polyol method has been employed to fabricate a palladium-doped graphene-tin oxide composite as a highly sensitive and selective carbon monoxide gas sensor. The ratio of graphene-SnO2 which is used in this research is 1:1, while the concentration of Pd doping is varied at 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1%. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) have been used to analyze crystallinity and morphology of all samples. Thick-film Pd-doped graphene-SnO2 has been fabricated using the spin-coating method on an alumina substrate. Investigation of the effect of Pd doping on a 30-ppm CO sensor shows increasing response from 88.11 to 92.99% after adding 0.1% Pd at a working temperature of 150 °C. At 50 °C, responses of the composite graphene-SnO2 with 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1% Pd are 19.32%, 32.00%, and 24%, respectively. While at 250 °C, sensor responses of graphene-SnO2 composites with 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1% Pd are 99.89%, 92.93%, and 75.06%, respectively. Among the samples, the 0.1% Pd-doped graphene-SnO2 composite shows the highest response; as a result, 0.1% Pd becomes the optimum concentration of Pd doping. Moreover, the 0.1% Pd-doped graphene-SnO2 composite shows good sensor sensitivity at 1.73%/ppm and great selectivity toward CO gas.


Carbon monoxide Gas sensor Graphene Nanostructure Palladium noble metal Tin oxide 


Funding information

This work is financially supported by the ITB research grant, the research grant of Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Educations, and the World Class Professor (WCP) program.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aminuddin Debataraja
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ni Luh Wulan Septiani
    • 2
  • Brian Yuliarto
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Nugraha
    • 2
    • 3
  • Bambang Sunendar
    • 4
  • Huda Abdullah
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringState Polytechnic of JakartaJakartaIndonesia
  2. 2.Advanced Functional Materials Laboratory, Department of Engineering PhysicsInstitut Teknologi BandungBandungIndonesia
  3. 3.Research Center for Nanosciences and NanotechnologyInstitut Teknologi BandungBandungIndonesia
  4. 4.Advanced Materials Processing Laboratory, Department of Engineering PhysicsInstitut Teknologi BandungBandungIndonesia
  5. 5.Centre of Advanced Electronic and Communication Engineering (PAKET)Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia

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