, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 559–572 | Cite as

Protonic cell performance employing electrolytes based on plasticized methylcellulose-potato starch-NH4NO3

  • M. H. Hamsan
  • Shujahadeen B. Aziz
  • M. F. Shukur
  • M. F. Z. KadirEmail author
Original Paper


Electrolytes consisting of methylcellulose/potato starch blend incorporated with ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) are prepared by solution cast method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) discovers that methylcellulose and starch are miscible. Cation transference number (tcat) of the highest conducting electrolyte is discovered to be 0.40. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) show that the electrolyte is stable in the voltage range of 1.50 to 1.88 V from 298 to 343 K. Protonic conduction in the electrolyte has been further proven via cyclic voltammetry using both reversible Zn + ZnSO4·7H2O and blocking stainless steel electrodes. The open circuit voltage (Voc) of the protonic cell is lasted for 24 h at 1.52 V. The value of Voc is inversely proportional to the temperature. The maximum capacity, internal resistance, and power density of the protonic cell at 343 K are found to be 42 mA h, 17 Ω, and 13.5 mW cm−2, respectively. Rechargeability of the protonic cell has been examined for 15 cycles at different constant current.


Polymer blend Power density Ammonium nitrate Glycerol Proton batteries 


Funding information

This study is supported by the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) and University of Malaya with grant nos. FP009-2015A and BKS005-2018.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. H. Hamsan
    • 1
  • Shujahadeen B. Aziz
    • 2
    • 3
  • M. F. Shukur
    • 4
  • M. F. Z. Kadir
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Graduate StudiesUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Advanced Polymeric Materials Research Lab, Department of Physics, College of ScienceUniversity of SulaimaniSulaimaniIraq
  3. 3.Komar Research Center (KRC)Komar University of Science and TechnologySulaimaniIraq
  4. 4.Fundamental and Applied Sciences DepartmentUniversiti Teknologi PETRONASSeri IskandarMalaysia
  5. 5.Center for Foundation Studies in ScienceUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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