, Volume 25, Issue 6, pp 2685–2691 | Cite as

The enhanced performance of lithium sulfur battery with ionic liquid-based electrolyte mixed with fluorinated ether

  • Hai LuEmail author
  • Zhen Chen
  • Huiling DuEmail author
  • Kai Zhang
  • Jinlei Wang
  • Zhenzhong Hou
  • Jing Fang
Original Paper


1,1,2,2-Tetrafluoroethyl-2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropyl ether (TTE) was selected as a co-solvent of ionic liquid for fabricating the functional electrolyte of Li-S batteries. The basic properties of the electrolyte and electrochemical performances of the cell with alterative TTE contents were intensively investigated. It is found that the fluorinated ether helps to promote ion conduction in the electrolyte, modify and stabilize SEI on Li metal, reduce charge transfer impedance, as well as restrict dissolution and shuttle of polysulfides. Consequently, high reversible capacity, good cycle, and rate capability are achieved at moderate TTE addition. The novel electrolyte guides a promising direction to construct Li-S batteries with high-energy density, long life, and high safety.


Lithium-sulfur battery Fluorinated ether Ionic liquid Electrolyte Polysulfide 


Funding information

This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 51604221, 51372197, and 51574288), the Key Innovation Team of Shaanxi Province (2014KCT-04), and the Key Research and Development Program of Shaanxi Province (2017GY-133).


  1. 1.
    Seh ZW, Sun Y, Zhang Q, Cui Y (2016) Designing high-energy lithium–sulfur batteries. Chem Soc Rev 45:5605–5634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zeng Z, Liu X (2018) Sulfur immobilization by “chemical anchor” to suppress the diffusion of polysulfides in lithium-sulfur batteries. Adv Mater Interfaces 5:1701274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhang SS (2013) Liquid electrolyte lithium/sulfur battery: fundamental chemistry, problems, and solutions. J Power Sources 231:153–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carbone L, Gobet M, Peng J, Devany M, Scrosati B, Greenbaum S, Hassoun J (2015) Comparative study of ether-based electrolytes for application in lithium-sulfur battery. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:13859–13865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barchasz C, Leprêtre J-C, Patoux S, Alloin F (2013) Electrochemical properties of ether-based electrolytes for lithium/sulfur rechargeable batteries. Electrochim Acta 89:737–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Armand M, Endres F, MacFarlane DR, Ohno H, Scrosati B (2009) Ionic-liquid materials for the electrochemical challenges of the future. Nat Mater 8:621–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Park J-W, Yamauchi K, Takashima E, Tachikawa N, Ueno K, Dokko K, Watanabe M (2013) Solvent effect of room temperature ionic liquids on electrochemical reactions in lithium–sulfur batteries. J Phys Chem C 117:4431–4440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Park J-W, Ueno K, Tachikawa N, Dokko K, Watanabe M (2013) Ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. J Phys Chem C 117:20531–20541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ma G, Wen Z, Jin J, Wu M, zhang G, Wu X, Zhang J (2014) The enhanced performance of Li–S battery with P14YRTFSI-modified electrolyte. Solid State Ionics 262:174–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Park J-W, Yoshida K, Tachikawa N, Dokko K, Watanabe M (2011) Limiting current density in bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide-based ionic liquid for lithium batteries. J Power Sources 196:2264–2268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ai G, Wang Z, Dai Y, Mao W, Zhao H, Fu Y, En Y, Battaglia V, Liu G (2016) Improving the over-all performance of Li-S batteries via electrolyte optimization with consideration of loading condition. Electrochim Acta 218(1–7):1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Drvarič Talian S, Bešter-Rogač M, Dominko R (2017) The physicochemical properties of a [DEME][TFSI] ionic liquid-based electrolyte and their influence on the performance of lithium–sulfur batteries. Electrochim Acta 252:147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yang Y, Men F, Song Z, Zhou Y, Zhan H (2017) N-methoxyethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide ionic liquid based hybrid electrolyte for lithium sulfur batteries. Electrochim Acta 256:37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang Y, Zhang Z, Haibara M, Sun D, Ma X, Jin Y, Munakata H, Kanamura K (2017) Reduced polysulfide shuttle effect by using polyimide separators with ionic liquid-based electrolytes in lithium-sulfur battery. Electrochim Acta 255:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wu F, Zhu Q, Chen R, Chen N, Chen Y, Li L (2015) A safe electrolyte with counterbalance between the ionic liquid and tris(ethylene glycol)dimethyl ether for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries. Electrochim Acta 184:356–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Azimi N, Weng W, Takoudis C, Zhang Z (2013) Improved performance of lithium–sulfur battery with fluorinated electrolyte. Electrochem Commun 37:96–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Drvarič Talian S, Jeschke S, Vizintin A, Pirnat K, Arčon I, Aquilanti G, Johansson P, Dominko R (2017) Fluorinated ether based electrolyte for high-energy lithium–sulfur batteries: Li+ solvation role behind reduced polysulfide solubility. Chem Mater 29:10037–10044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gu S, Qian R, Jin J, Wang Q, Guo J, Zhang S, Zhuo S, Wen Z (2016) Suppressing the dissolution of polysulfides with cosolvent fluorinated diether towards high-performance lithium sulfur batteries. Phys Chem Chem Phys 18:29293–29299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yang W, Yang W, Feng J, Ma Z, Shao G (2016) High capacity and cycle stability rechargeable lithium–sulfur batteries by sandwiched gel polymer electrolyte. Electrochim Acta 210:71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lu H, Zhang K, Yuan Y, Qin F, Zhang Z, Lai Y, Liu Y (2015) Lithium/sulfur batteries with mixed liquid electrolytes based on ethyl 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl ether. Electrochim Acta 161:55–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Xiong S, Xie K, Blomberg E, Jacobsson P, Matic A (2014) Analysis of the solid electrolyte interphase formed with an ionic liquid electrolyte for lithium-sulfur batteries. J Power Sources 252:150–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Xiong S, Xie K, Diao Y, Hong X (2014) Characterization of the solid electrolyte interphase on lithium anode for preventing the shuttle mechanism in lithium–sulfur batteries. J Power Sources 246:840–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zu C, Azimi N, Zhang Z, Manthiram A (2015) Insight into lithium–metal anodes in lithium–sulfur batteries with a fluorinated ether electrolyte. J Mater Chem A 3:14864–14870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Azimi N, Xue Z, Bloom I, Gordin ML, Wang D, Daniel T, Takoudis C, Zhang Z (2015) Understanding the effect of a fluorinated ether on the performance of lithium–sulfur batteries. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:9169–9177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gordin ML, Dai F, Chen S, Xu T, Song J, Tang D, Azimi N, Zhang Z, Wang D (2014) Bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) ether as an electrolyte co-solvent for mitigating self-discharge in lithium-sulfur batteries. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:8006–8010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhao Z, Wang S, Liang R, Li Z, Shi Z, Chen G (2014) Graphene-wrapped chromium-MOF(MIL-101)/sulfur composite for performance improvement of high-rate rechargeable Li-S batteries. J Mater Chem A 2:13509–13512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Xu H, Deng Y, Shi Z, Qian Y, Meng Y, Chen G (2013) Graphene-encapsulated sulfur (GES) composites with a core–shell structure as superior cathode materials for lithium–sulfur batteries. J Mater Chem A 1:15142–15149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liu J, Wang C, Liu B, Ke X, Liu L, Shi Z, Zhang H, Guo Z (2017) Rational synthesis of MnO2@CMK/S composite as cathode materials for lithium–sulfur batteries. Mater Lett 195:236–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liu J, Liu B, Wang C, Huang Z, Hu L, Ke X, Liu L, Shi Z, Guo Z (2017) Walnut shel-derived activated carbon: synthesis and its application in the sulfur cathode for lithium-sulfur batteries. J Alloys Compd 718:373–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang J, Chew S, Zhao Z, Ashraf S, Wexler D, Chen J, Ng S, Chou S, Liu H (2008) Sulfur–mesoporous carbon composites in conjunction with a novel ionic liquid electrolyte for lithium rechargeable batteries. Carbon 46:229–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang L, Byon H (2013) N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide-based organic electrolyte for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries. J Power Sources 236:207–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cuisinier M, Cabelguen PE, Adams BD, Garsuch A, Balasubramanian M, Nazar LF (2014) Unique behaviour of nonsolvents for polysulphides in lithium–sulphur batteries. Energy Environ Sci 7:2697–2705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lu H, Yuan Y, Hou Z, Lai Y, Zhang K, Liu Y (2016) Solvate ionic liquid electrolyte with 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl ether as a support solvent for advanced lithium–sulfur batteries. RSC Adv 6:18186–18190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cui X, Shan Z, Cui L, Tian J (2013) Enhanced electrochemical performance of sulfur/carbon nanocomposite material prepared via chemical deposition with a vacuum soaking step. Electrochim Acta 105:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lu H, Yuan Y, Zhang K, Qin F, Lai Y, Liu Y (2015) Application of partially fluorinated ether for improving performance of lithium/sulfur batteries. J Electrochem Soc 162:A1460–A1465CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Materials Science and EngineeringXi’an University of Science and TechnologyXi’anChina
  2. 2.School of Metallurgy and EnvironmentCentral South UniversityChangshaChina

Personalised recommendations