Effects of activated carbon treatment on Li4Ti5O12 anode material synthesis for lithium-ion batteries
- 176 Downloads
Conventional solid-state reaction method that is widely adopted to synthesize Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) typically generates rutile TiO2 phase at calcination temperature range between 700 and 900 °C in which two competitive reactions between anatase-to-rutile TiO2 and Li2TiO3-to-Li4Ti5O12 formations occur simultaneously. This study investigates the effectiveness of coconut shell-based activated carbon treatment to eliminate the formation of anatase-to-rutile TiO2. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that mixing LTO precursors with 3, 6, and 10 wt% activated carbon prior to calcination process could reduce the amount of rutile TiO2 phase in LTO down to 6.9, 4.6, and 3.5 wt%, respectively, versus 9.1 wt% in untreated LTO. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements show that LTO pretreated with 10 wt% AC has discharge capacity of 168.35 mAh g−1 and also Li+-ion diffusion rate of 1.2 × 10−13 cm2 s−1. These values are comparably higher than those of untreated LTO that gains lower discharge capacity of 134.93 mAh g−1 and Li+-ion diffusion rate of 6.9 × 10−14 cm2 s−1. This improvement could be attributed to the suppression of anatase-to-rutile TiO2 formation during calcination process.
KeywordsLithium-ion battery Li4Ti5O12 Rutile TiO2 Activated carbon Coconut shell
The authors would like to thanks the Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education of The Republic of Indonesia (Kemenristek Dikti) for financial support to do this research under INSINAS grant with contract no. 04/INS-2/PPK/E/E4/2017.
- 11.Kim J-G, Park M-S, Hwang SM, Heo Y-U, Liao T, Sun Z, Park JH, Kim KJ, Jeong G, Kim Y-J, Kim JH, Dou SX (2014) Zr4+ doping in Li4Ti5O12 anode for lithium-ion batteries: open Li+ diffusion paths through structural imperfection. Chemsuschem 7:1451–1457Google Scholar
- 15.Song H, Jeong T, Moon YH, Chun H-H, Chung KY, Kim HS, Cho BW, Kim Y-T (2014) Stabilization of oxygen-deficient structure for conducting Li4Ti5O12 by molybdenum doping in a reducing atmosphere. Sci Rep 4:1–8Google Scholar
- 23.Wang P, Zhang G, Cheng J, You Y, Li Y, Ding C, Gu J-J, Zheng X-S, Zhang C-F, Cao F-F (2017) Facile synthesis of carbon-coated spinel Li4Ti5O12/rutile-TiO2 composites as an improved anode material in full lithium-ion batteries with LiFePO4@N-doped carbon cathode. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9(7):6138–6143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Mistry BD (2009) A handbook of spectroscopic data chemistry: UV, IR, PMR, 13CNMR and mass spectroscopy. Oxford Book Company, Jaipur, pp 26–63Google Scholar
- 29.Coates J (2000) Interpretation of infrared spectra: a practical approach. In: Meyers RA (ed) Encyclopedia of analytical chemistry, 1st edn. Willey, Chichester, pp 10815–10837Google Scholar
- 35.Zhu G-N, Wang C, Xia Y (2011) A comprehensive study of effects of carbon coating on Li4Ti5O12 anode material for lithium-ion batteries service. J Am Chem Soc 158(2):A102–A109Google Scholar
- 41.Bard AJ, Faulkner LR (2001) Electrochemical methods: fundamentals and applications. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 42.Kanamura K, Yuasa K, Takehara Z (1987) Diffusion of lithium in the TiO2 cathode of a lithium. J Power Sources 20:127–134Google Scholar