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Ionics

pp 1–14 | Cite as

Influence of temperature on performance of all vanadium redox flow battery: analysis of ionic mass transfer

  • Shengsheng Yin
  • Leping Zhou
  • Xiaoze Du
  • Yongping Yang
Original Paper
  • 99 Downloads

Abstract

The main mass transfer processes of the ions in a vanadium redox flow battery and the temperature dependence of corresponding mass transfer properties of the ions were estimated by investigating the influences of temperature on the electrolyte properties and the single cell performance. A composition of 1.5 M vanadium solutions in 3.0 M total sulfate was selected and a range of − 10–50 °C was set as the operating temperature limits. It shows that the temperature effect on the concentration polarization of reactive substances and the ionic mobility of H+ in the membrane may be the main factor affecting the performance at low temperatures, while the diffusion coefficient and the ionic mobility of vanadium ions are dominant for the performance at high temperatures. The relation between the mass transfer properties of the ions in electrolyte and the battery performance was then clarified using a route map of the temperature effects.

Keywords

Diffusion Mass transfer Ionic conductivities Temperature effects Vanadium flow batteries 

Nomenclature

a1, a2

coefficients for Eq. (15)

A

area of electrode (m2)

b1, b2

coefficient for Eq. (15)

c

concentration (mol L−1)

c1, c2

coefficients for Eq. (18)

d1, d2

coefficients for Eq. (18)

CE

coulombic efficiency

CV

cyclic voltammetry

D

diffusion coefficient (cm2 s−1)

E

electric field intensity, reaction potential difference (V)

e1, e2

coefficients for Eq. (19)

EE

energy efficiency

F

Faraday constant (C mol−1)

g1, g2

coefficients for Eq. (20)

[H+]

hydrogen ion concentration (mol L−1)

I

electric current (A)

J

mass transfer rate (mol s−l cm−2)

k

slope of the relation between I p and v0.5 (A V−1/2 s1/2)

K

conductivity (S m−1)

l

length (m)

n

electron number exchanged in reaction

OCV

open circuit voltage (V)

R

electrical resistance (S−1)

\( \overline{R} \)

universal gas constant (J mol−1 K−1)

RFB

redox flow battery

SOC

state of charge (%)

SCE

saturated calomel electrode

t

temperature (°C)

T

Kelvin temperature (K)

u

ionic mobility

v

potential scanning rate (V s−1) or flow rate of solution

VRFB

vanadium redox flow battery

V

voltage (V)

VE

voltage efficiency

Z

valence of the ion

Greek symbols

φ

reaction potential (V)

τ

time (s)

Subscripts

0

support liquid, or SOC = 0

a

anode

c

charge, cathode or convection

d

discharge, dissipative or diffusion

e

electromigration

i

substance i

max

maximum

min

minimum

p

peak

r

real

x

x-direction

Superscripts

0

standard

*

bulk

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful for the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 91634115) and the National Key Basic Research Program of China (No. 2015CB251503).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shengsheng Yin
    • 1
  • Leping Zhou
    • 1
  • Xiaoze Du
    • 1
  • Yongping Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Energy, Power and Mechanical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment of Ministry of EducationNorth China Electric Power UniversityBeijingChina

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