pp 1–14 | Cite as

Cyclic voltammetric preparation of graphene-coated electrodes for positive electrode materials of vanadium redox flow battery

  • Hürmüs Gürsu
  • Metin Gençten
  • Yücel Şahin
Original Paper


In this work, a one-step procedure for preparing graphene pencil graphite electrodes is developed by using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The potential is scanned from − 1.0 to + 1.90 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in a sulfuric acid solution in this system. The in situ electrochemical oxidation of graphite to graphene oxide (GO) and then the electrochemical reduction of GO to graphene are observed in the cyclic voltammograms. The electrochemical behaviors of GO and graphene electrode are investigated by CV and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The morphological and physical properties of the graphene layers are elucidated by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The prepared graphene-coated electrodes are as the positive electrode component of a vanadium redox battery (VRB). The electrodes show excellent electrochemical performance and high cyclic stability (more than 500 cycles) in a VRB system. The presented processing route is faster, easier, less expensive, and more environmentally friendly than other electrochemical and chemical methods to obtain graphene electrodes.


Pencil graphite electrode Graphene electrode Cyclic voltammetry Vanadium redox battery Sulfuric acid 



The authors would like to thank Dr. M. Baris Yagci for the XPS analysis. Y. Sahin thanks Prof. Dr. Ender SUVACI for his support to this study.

Funding information

This work was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), Project No: 114Z774. Hurmus Gursu and Metin Gencten express their gratitude to Tubitak-BIDEB for the fellowship.


  1. 1.
    Parasuraman A, Lim TM, Menictas C, Skyllas-Kazacos M (2013) Review of material research and development for vanadium redox flow battery applications. Electrochim Acta 101:27–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Skyllas-Kazacos M (1986) New all-vanadium redox flow cell. J Electrochem Soc 133:1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Weber AZ, Mench MM, Meyers JP, Ross PN, Gostick JT, Liu Q (2011) Redox flow batteries: a review. J Appl Electrochem 41:1137–1164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liang X, Peng S, Lei Y, Gao C, Wang N, Liu S, Fang D (2013) Effect of l-glutamic acid on the positive electrolyte for all-vanadium redox flow battery. Electrochim Acta 95:80–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kim KJ, Park M-S, Kim Y-J, Kim JH, Dou SX, Skyllas-Kazacos M (2015) A technology review of electrodes and reaction mechanisms in vanadium redox flow batteries. J Mater Chem A 3:16913–16933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rychcik M, Skyllas-Kazacos M (1987) Evaluation of electrode materials for vanadium redox cell. J Power Sources 19:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    González Z, Botas C, Álvarez P, Roldán S, Blanco C, Santamaría R, Granda M, Menéndez R (2012) Thermally reduced graphite oxide as positive electrode in vanadium redox flow batteries. Carbon N Y 50:828–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yue L, Li W, Sun F, Zhao L, Xing L (2010) Highly hydroxylated carbon fibres as electrode materials of all-vanadium redox flow battery. Carbon N Y 48:3079–3090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wu X, Xu H, Shen Y, Xu P, Lu L, Fu J, Zhao H (2014) Treatment of graphite felt by modified Hummers method for the positive electrode of vanadium redox flow battery. Electrochim Acta 138:264–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li W, Liu J, Yan C (2013) Reduced graphene oxide with tunable C/O ratio and its activity towards vanadium redox pairs for an all vanadium redox flow battery. Carbon N Y 55:313–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shi L, Liu S, He Z, Shen J (2014) Nitrogen-doped graphene: effects of nitrogen species on the properties of the vanadium redox flow battery. Electrochim Acta 138:93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang WH, Wang XD (2007) Investigation of Ir-modified carbon felt as the positive electrode of an all-vanadium redox flow battery. Electrochim Acta 52:6755–6762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    González Z, Sánchez A, Blanco C et al (2011) Enhanced performance of a Bi-modified graphite felt as the positive electrode of a vanadium redox flow battery. Electrochem Commun 13:1379–1382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Novoselov KS, Geim AK, Morozov SV, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos SV, Grigorieva IV, Firsov AA (2004) Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science 306:666–669CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Allen MJ, Tung VC, Kaner RB (2010) Honeycomb carbon: a review of graphene. Chem Rev 110:132–145CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pumera M (2010) Graphene-based nanomaterials and their electrochemistry. Chem Soc Rev 39:4146–4157CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brownson DAC, Kampouris DK, Banks CE (2012) Graphene electrochemistry: fundamental concepts through to prominent applications. Chem Soc Rev 41:6944–6976CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yang Y, Lu F, Zhou Z, Song W, Chen Q, Ji X (2013) Electrochemically cathodic exfoliation of graphene sheets in room temperature ionic liquids N-butyl, methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and their electrochemical properties. Electrochim Acta 113:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jin H, Wang X, Gu Z, Fan Q, Luo B (2015) A facile method for preparing nitrogen-doped graphene and its application in supercapacitors. J Power Sources 273:1156–1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhang J, Guo B, Yang Y, Shen W, Wang Y, Zhou X, Wu H, Guo S (2015) Large scale production of nanoporous graphene sheets and their application in lithium ion battery. Carbon N Y 84:469–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gao H, Duan H (2015) 2D and 3D graphene materials: preparation and bioelectrochemical applications. Biosens Bioelectron 65:404–419CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pu NW, Shi GN, Liu YM, Sun X, Chang JK, Sun CL, Ger MD, Chen CY, Wang PC, Peng YY, Wu CH, Lawes S (2015) Graphene grown on stainless steel as a high-performance and ecofriendly anti-corrosion coating for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell bipolar plates. J Power Sources 282:248–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hoa LT, Sun KG, Hur SH (2015) Highly sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on Pt nanoparticle decorated graphene oxide hydrogel. Sensors Actuators B Chem 210:618–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pruna A, Reyes-Tolosa MD, Pullini D, Hernandez-Fenollosa MA, Busquets-Mataix D (2015) Seed-free electrodeposition of ZnO bi-pods on electrophoretically-reduced graphene oxide for optoelectronic applications. Ceram Int 41:2381–2388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Huang H, Chen S, Wee ATS, Chen W (2014) 1 − Epitaxial growth of graphene on silicon carbide (SiC). Graphene:3–26Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Frank O, Kalbac M (2014) Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of graphene films. Graphene:27–49Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sundaram RS (2014) Chemically derived graphene. GrapheneGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bose S, Kuila T, Kim NH, Lee JH (2014) Graphene produced by electrochemical exfoliation. Graphene 81–98Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yu XZZ, Hwang CGG, Jozwiak CMM et al (2011) New synthesis method for the growth of epitaxial graphene. J Electron Spectros Relat Phenomena 184:100–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Berger C, Song Z, Li T, Li X, Ogbazghi AY, Feng R, Dai Z, Marchenkov AN, Conrad EH, First PN, de Heer WA (2004) Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics. J Phys Chem B 108:19912–19916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Heer WA, Berger C, Ruan M et al (2011) Large area and structured epitaxial graphene produced by confinement controlled sublimation of silicon carbide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:16900–16905CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sharma S, Kalita G, Hirano R, Shinde SM, Papon R, Ohtani H, Tanemura M (2014) Synthesis of graphene crystals from solid waste plastic by chemical vapor deposition. Carbon 72:66–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bae S, Kim H, Lee Y, Xu X, Park JS, Zheng Y, Balakrishnan J, Lei T, Ri Kim H, Song YI, Kim YJ, Kim KS, Özyilmaz B, Ahn JH, Hong BH, Iijima S (2010) Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes. Nat Nanotechnol 5:574–578CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Li X, Cai W, An J et al (2009) Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils. Science (80-) 324:1312–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kalita G, Masahiro M, Uchida H, Wakita K, Umeno M (2010) Few layers of graphene as transparent electrode from botanical derivative camphor. Mater Lett 64:2180–2183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lee Y, Bae S, Jang H, Jang S, Zhu SE, Sim SH, Song YI, Hong BH, Ahn JH (2010) Supporting infro wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films. Nano Lett 10:490–493CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wang H, Wang G, Bao P, Yang S, Zhu W, Xie X, Zhang WJ (2012) Controllable synthesis of submillimeter single-crystal monolayer graphene domains on copper foils by suppressing nucleation. J Am Chem Soc 134:3627–3630CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Li X, Magnuson CW, Venugopal A, Tromp RM, Hannon JB, Vogel EM, Colombo L, Ruoff RS (2011) Large-area graphene single crystals grown by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of methane on copper. J Am Chem Soc 133:2816–2819CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hwang C, Yoo K, Kim SJ, Seo EK, Yu H, Biró LP (2011) Initial stage of graphene growth on a Cu substrate. J Phys Chem C 115:22369–22374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Stankovich S, Dikin DA, Piner RD, Kohlhaas KA, Kleinhammes A, Jia Y, Wu Y, Nguyen SBT, Ruoff RS (2007) Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide. Carbon N Y 45:1558–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Shin HJ, Kim KK, Benayad A, Yoon SM, Park HK, Jung IS, Jin MH, Jeong HK, Kim JM, Choi JY, Lee YH (2009) Efficient reduction of graphite oxide by sodium borohydride and its effect on electrical conductance. Adv Funct Mater 19:1987–1992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wang G, Yang J, Park J et al (2008) Facile synthesis and characterization of graphene nanosheets. J Phys Chem B 112:8192–8195Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wu ZS, Ren W, Gao L, Liu B, Jiang C, Cheng HM (2009) Synthesis of high-quality graphene with a pre-determined number of layers. Carbon N Y 47:493–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fernández-Merino MJ, Guardia L, Paredes JI, Villar-Rodil S, Solís-Fernández P, Martínez-Alonso A, Tascón JMD (2010) Vitamin C is an ideal substitute for hydrazine in the reduction of graphene oxide suspensions. J Phys Chem C 114:6426–6432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fan X, Peng W, Li Y, Li X, Wang S, Zhang G, Zhang F (2008) Deoxygenation of exfoliated graphite oxide under alkaline conditions: a green route to graphene preparation. Adv Mater 20:4490–4493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Toh SY, Loh KS, Kamarudin SK, Daud WRW (2014) Graphene production via electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide: synthesis and characterisation. Chem Eng J 251:422–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chakrabarti MH, Low CTJ, Brandon NP, Yufit V, Hashim MA, Irfan MF, Akhtar J, Ruiz-Trejo E, Hussain MA (2013) Progress in the electrochemical modification of graphene-based materials and their applications. Electrochim Acta 107:425–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Doǧan HÖ, Ekinci D, Demir Ü (2013) Atomic scale imaging and spectroscopic characterization of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide. Surf Sci 611:54–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Peng XY, Liu XX, Diamond D, Lau KT (2011) Synthesis of electrochemically-reduced graphene oxide film with controllable size and thickness and its use in supercapacitor. Carbon N Y 49:3488–3496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Zhou M, Wang Y, Zhai Y, Zhai J, Ren W, Wang F, Dong S (2009) Controlled synthesis of large-area and patterned electrochemically reduced graphene oxide films. Chem - A Eur J 15:6116–6120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Najafabadi AT, Gyenge E (2014) High-yield graphene production by electrochemical exfoliation of graphite: novel ionic liquid (IL)-acetonitrile electrolyte with low IL content. Carbon N Y 71:58–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lu J, Yang J, Wang J, Lim A, Wang S, Loh KP (2009) One-pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoribbons, nanoparticles, and graphene by the exfoliation of graphite in ionic liquids. ACS Nano 3:2367–2375CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Najafabadi AT, Gyenge E (2015) Synergistic production of graphene microsheets by simultaneous anodic and cathodic electro-exfoliation of graphitic electrodes in aprotic ionic liquids. Carbon N Y 84:449–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Liu J, Poh CK, Zhan D, Lai L, Lim SH, Wang L, Liu X, Gopal Sahoo N, Li C, Shen Z, Lin J (2013) Improved synthesis of graphene flakes from the multiple electrochemical exfoliation of graphite rod. Nano Energy 2:377–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Singh VV, Gupta G, Batra A, Nigam AK, Boopathi M, Gutch PK, Tripathi BK, Srivastava A, Samuel M, Agarwal GS, Singh B, Vijayaraghavan R (2012) Greener electrochemical synthesis of high quality graphene nanosheets directly from pencil and its SPR sensing application. Adv Funct Mater 22:2352–2362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kakaei K (2013) One-pot electrochemical synthesis of graphene by the exfoliation of graphite powder in sodium dodecyl sulfate and its decoration with platinum nanoparticles for methanol oxidation. Carbon N Y 51:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Woo S, Lee J, Park SK, Kim H, Chung TD, Piao Y (2015) Electrochemical codeposition of Pt/graphene catalyst for improved methanol oxidation. Curr Appl Phys 15:219–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gürsu H, Gençten M, Şahin Y (2017) One-step electrochemical preparation of graphene-coated pencil graphite electrodes by cyclic voltammetry and their application in vanadium redox batteries. Electrochim Acta 243:239–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Di Blasi O, Briguglio N, Busacca C et al (2015) Electrochemical investigation of thermically treated graphene oxides as electrode materials for vanadium redox flow battery. Appl Energy 147:74–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Flox C, Skoumal M, Rubio-Garcia J, Andreu T, Morante JR (2013) Strategies for enhancing electrochemical activity of carbon-based electrodes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries. Appl Energy 109:344–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Flox C, Rubio-García J, Skoumal M, Andreu T, Morante JR (2013) Thermo-chemical treatments based on NH3/O2 for improved graphite-based fiber electrodes in vanadium redox flow batteries. Carbon 60:280–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Di Blasi A, Di Blasi O, Briguglio N et al (2013) Investigation of several graphite-based electrodes for vanadium redox flow cell. J Power Sources 227:15–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    González Z, Flox C, Blanco C, Granda M, Morante JR, Menéndez R, Santamaría R (2017) Outstanding electrochemical performance of a graphene-modified graphite felt for vanadium redox flow battery application. J Power Sources 338:155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Maruyama J, Shinagawa T, Hayashida A, Matsuo Y, Nishihara H, Kyotani T (2016) Vanadium-ion redox reactions in a three-dimensional network of reduced graphite oxide. Chem Electro Chem 3:650–657Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Steimecke M, Rümmler S, Kühhirt M, Bron M (2016) A linear sweep voltammetric procedure applied to scanning electrochemical microscopy for the characterization of carbon materials towards the vanadium(IV)/(V) redox system. ChemElectroChem 3:318–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tsai HM, Yang SY, Ma CCM, Xie X (2011) Preparation and electrochemical properties of graphene-modified electrodes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries. Electroanalysis 23:2139–2143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    González Z, Botas C, Blanco C, Santamaría R, Granda M, Álvarez P, Menéndez R (2013) Graphite oxide-based graphene materials as positive electrodes in vanadium redox flow batteries. J Power Sources 241:349–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Tsai HM, Yang SJ, Ma CCM, Xie X (2012) Preparation and electrochemical activities of iridium-decorated graphene as the electrode for all-vanadium redox flow batteries. Electrochim Acta 77:232–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Özcan L, Şahin Y (2007) Determination of paracetamol based on electropolymerized-molecularly imprinted polypyrrole modified pencil graphite electrode. Sensors Actuators B Chem 127:362–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Özcan L, Sahin M, Sahin Y (2008) Electrochemical preparation of a molecularly imprinted polypyrrole-modified pencil graphite electrode for determination of ascorbic acid. Sensors 8:5792–5805CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Bard A, Faulkner L (2001) Electrochemical methods: fundamentals and applications. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Karim MR, Hatakeyama K, Matsui T, Takehira H, Taniguchi T, Koinuma M, Matsumoto Y, Akutagawa T, Nakamura T, Noro SI, Yamada T, Kitagawa H, Hayami S (2013) Graphene oxide nanosheet with high proton conductivity. J Am Chem Soc 135:8097–8100CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gao W, Wu G, Janicke MT, Cullen DA, Mukundan R, Baldwin JK, Brosha EL, Galande C, Ajayan PM, More KL, Dattelbaum AM, Zelenay P (2014) Ozonated graphene oxide film as a proton-exchange membrane. Angew Chemie-Int Ed 53:3588–3593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Tateishi H, Koinuma M, Miyamoto S, Kamei Y, Hatakeyama K, Ogata C, Taniguchi T, Funatsu A, Matsumoto Y (2014) Effect of the electrochemical oxidation/reduction cycle on the electrochemical capacitance of graphite oxide. Carbon N Y 76:40–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hu X, Yu Y, Hou W, Zhou J, Song L (2013) Effects of particle size and pH value on the hydrophilicity of graphene oxide. Appl Surf Sci 273:118–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Liao KH, Mittal A, Bose S, Leighton C, Mkhoyan KA, Macosko CW (2011) Aqueous only route toward graphene from graphite oxide. ACS Nano 5:1253–1258CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gilje S, Kaner RB, Wallace GG et al (2008) Processable aqueous dispersions of graphene nanosheets. Nat Nanotechnol 3:101–105CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Yan JA, Xian L, Chou MY (2009) Structural and electronic properties of oxidized graphene. Phys Rev Lett 103:86802–86805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wang X, Xi M, Guo M et al (2015) An electrochemically aminated glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol. Analyst 141:1077–1082CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kakaei K, Hasanpour K (2014) Synthesis of graphene oxide nanosheets by electrochemical exfoliation of graphite in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and its application for oxygen reduction. J Mater Chem A 2:15428–15436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Alanyalioǧlu M, Segura JJ, Oró-Sol J, Casañ-Pastor N (2012) The synthesis of graphene sheets with controlled thickness and order using surfactant-assisted electrochemical processes. Carbon 50:142–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Low CTJ, Walsh FC, Chakrabarti MH, Hashim MA, Hussain MA (2013) Electrochemical approaches to the production of graphene flakes and their potential applications. Carbon N Y 54:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Paredes JI, Villar-Rodil S, Fernandez-Merino MJ et al (2011) Environmentally friendly approaches toward the mass production of processable graphene from graphite oxide. J Mater Chem 21:298–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Shao Y, Wang J, Engelhard M, Wang C, Lin Y (2010) Facile and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and its applications. J Mater Chem 20:743–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wang G, Wang B, Park J, Wang Y, Sun B, Yao J (2009) Highly efficient and large-scale synthesis of graphene by electrolytic exfoliation. Carbon 47:3242–3246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Su CY, Lu AY, Xu Y, Chen FR, Khlobystov AN, Li LJ (2011) High-quality thin graphene films from fast electrochemical exfoliation. ACS Nano 5:2332–2339CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Chen L, Tang Y, Wang K, Liu C, Luo S (2011) Direct electrodeposition of reduced graphene oxide on glassy carbon electrode and its electrochemical application. Electrochem Commun 13:133–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Liu C, Wang K, Luo S, Tang Y, Chen L (2011) Direct electrodeposition of graphene enabling the one-step synthesis of graphene-metal nanocomposite films. Small 7:1203–1206CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Casero E, Alonso C, Vázquez L, Petit-Domínguez MD, Parra-Alfambra AM, de la Fuente M, Merino P, Álvarez-García S, de Andrés A, Pariente F, Lorenzo E (2013) Comparative response of biosensing platforms based on synthesized graphene oxide and electrochemically reduced graphene. Electroanalysis 25:154–165Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Liang B, Fang L, Yang G, Hu Y, Guo X, Ye X (2013) Direct electron transfer glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase self-assembled on electrochemically reduced carboxyl graphene. Biosens Bioelectron 43:131–136CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Wang H, Zhang C, Liu Z, Wang L, Han P, Xu H, Zhang K, Dong S, Yao J, Cui G (2011) Nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets with excellent lithium storage properties. J Mater Chem 21:5430–5434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Shabani Shayeh J, Ehsani A, Ganjali MR, Norouzi P, Jaleh B (2015) Conductive polymer/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles as efficient composite materials in electrochemical supercapacitors. Appl Surf Sci 353:594–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Dönmez KB, Gençten M, Şahin Y (2017) A novel polysiloxane-based polymer as a gel agent for gel–VRLA batteries. Ionics (Kiel) 23:2077–2089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gençten M, Dönmez KB, Şahin Y, Pekmez K, Suvacı E (2014) Voltammetric and electrochemical impedimetric behavior of silica-based gel electrolyte for valve-regulated lead-acid battery. J Solid State Electrochem 18:2469–2479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Sheng K, Sun Y, Li C, Yuan W, Shi G (2012) Ultrahigh-rate supercapacitors based on eletrochemically reduced graphene oxide for ac line-filtering. Sci Rep 2:247–251CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Zhu B, Deng Z, Yang W, Wang H, Gao L (2015) Pyrolyzed polyaniline and graphene nano sheet composite with improved rate and cycle performance for lithium storage. Carbon N Y 92:354–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Zhang LL, Zhao X, Stoller MD, Zhu Y, Ji H, Murali S, Wu Y, Perales S, Clevenger B, Ruoff RS (2012) Highly conductive and porous activated reduced graphene oxide films for high-power supercapacitors. Nano Lett 12:1806–1812CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lu W, Qu L, Henry K, Dai L (2009) High performance electrochemical capacitors from aligned carbon nanotube electrodes and ionic liquid electrolytes. J Power Sources 189:1270–1277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Herron CR, Coleman KS, Edwards RS, Mendis BG (2011) Simple and scalable route for the “bottom-up” synthesis of few-layer graphene platelets and thin films. J Mater Chem 21:3378–3383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ferrari AC, Meyer JC, Scardaci V, Casiraghi C, Lazzeri M, Mauri F, Piscanec S, Jiang D, Novoselov KS, Roth S, Geim AK (2006) Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers. Phys Rev Lett 97:187401–187404CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lee J-K, Lee S, Kim Y-I et al (2014) The seeded growth of graphene. Sci Rep 4:5682–5686CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Malard LM, Pimenta MA, Dresselhaus G, Dresselhaus MS (2009) Raman spectroscopy in graphene. Phys Rep 473:51–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kumar R, Naqvi S, Gupta N, Gaurav K, Khan S, Kumar P, Rana A, Singh RK, Bharadwaj R, Chand S (2015) Bulk synthesis of highly conducting graphene oxide with long range ordering. RSC Adv 5:35893–35898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Tuinstra F, Koenig LJ (1970) Raman spectrum of graphite. J Chem Phys 53:1126–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kim HS (2011) Electrochemical properties of graphite-based electrodes for redox flow batteries. Bull Kor Chem Soc 32:571–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Skyllas-Kazacos M (1999) Evaluation of precipitation inhibitors for supersaturated vanadyl electrolytes for the vanadium redox battery. Electrochem Solid-State Lett 2:121–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Gençten M, Gürsu H, Şahin Y (2016) Electrochemical investigation of the effects of V(V) and sulfuric acid concentrations on positive electrolyte for vanadium redox flow battery. Int J Hydrog Energy 41:9868–9875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Gencten M, Gursu H, Sahin Y (2017) Effect of α- and γ-alumina on the precipitation of positive electrolyte in vanadium redox battery. Int J Hydrog Energy 42:25598–25607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Gencten M, Gursu H, Sahin Y (2017) Anti-precipitation effects of TiO2 and TiOSO4 on positive electrolyte of vanadium redox battery. Int J Hydrog Energy 42:25608–25618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Bard AJ, Faulkner LR (2001) Electrochemical methods: fundamentals and applications, 2nd Ed.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Melke J, Jakes P, Langner J, Riekehr L, Kunz U, Zhao-Karger Z, Nefedov A, Sezen H, Wöll C, Ehrenberg H, Roth C (2014) Carbon materials for the positive electrode in all-vanadium redox flow batteries. Carbon N Y 78:220–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Gursu H, Gencten M, Sahin Y (2018) Preparation of sulphur-doped graphene-based electrodes by cyclic voltammetry: a potential application for vanadium redox flow battery. Int J Electrochem Sci 13:875–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Woo S, Kim YR, Chung TD, Piao Y, Kim H (2012) Synthesis of a graphene-carbon nanotube composite and its electrochemical sensing of hydrogen peroxide. Electrochim Acta 59:509–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Choo H-S, Kinumoto T, Jeong S-K, Iriyama Y, Abe T, Ogumi Z (2007) Mechanism for electrochemical oxidation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite in sulfuric acid solution. J Electrochem Soc 154:B1017–B1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hürmüs Gürsu
    • 1
  • Metin Gençten
    • 2
  • Yücel Şahin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts & SciencesYildiz Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical EngineeringYildiz Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations