Advertisement

Ionics

pp 1–11 | Cite as

Zinc oxide nanofiller-based composite polymer gel electrolyte for application in EDLCs

  • Mukta Tripathi
  • Anuj Kumar
Original Paper
  • 69 Downloads

Abstract

A ZnO nanofiller-based polymer gel electrolyte was prepared using solution-cast technique by incorporating PVDF-HFP as the polymer, ethylene carbonate (EC)-propylene carbonate (PC) as plasticizers, tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4) as salt, and ZnO as nanofiller. A maximum ionic conductivity value 6.3 × 10−3 Scm−1 was obtained by adding 12 wt% of ZnO nanoparticles in complex [{PVDF-HFP (20 wt%) + {EC-PC (v/v)-TEABF4 (1.0 M)} (80 wt%)}]. From the temperature-dependent conductivity plot, the activation energy is found to be equal to E a  ~ 0.07 eV. The amorphous structure is confirmed by SEM and XRD analysis. Electrochemical potential window and ionic transference number were calculated and found to be equal to ~3.3 V and 0.84, respectively. Optimized NCPGE is utilized in the fabrication of the electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) cell using market parched activated charcoal as electrode material. The specific capacitance of the fabricated EDLC cell is found to be equal to 162.9 mFcm−1 and ~ 67.8 Fg−1 for the single-electrode system.

Keywords

Nanocomposite polymer gel electrolyte Potential window Nanoparticles Electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Jaypee University of Engineering and Technology, Guna (MP), for providing experimental facility and Prof. D K Rai, JIIT, Noida (UP), for characterization facility. Financial support to Mukta Tripathi from Jaypee University of Engineering and Technology, Guna (MP), is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    Armand M, Chabagno J, Duclot MM (1979) In: Vashishta P (ed) Fast transport in solids vol. 131. North-Holland, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wright PV (1975) Electrical conductivity in ionic complexes of poly-ethylene oxide. Br Polym J 7:319–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Scrosati B, Croce F, Panero S (2001) Progress in lithium polymer battery R&D. J Power Sources 100:93–100.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7753(01)00886-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Best AS, Adebahr J, Jacobsson P, MacFarlane DR, Forsyth M (2001) Microscopic interactions in nanocomposite electrolytes. Macromolecules 34:549–4555.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ma001837h CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Karlsson C, Best AS, Swenson J, Howells WS, Borjesson L (2003) Polymer dynamics in 3PEG–LiClO4–TiO23PEG-LiClO4-TiO2 nanocomposite polymer electrolytes. J Chem Phys 118:4206–4212.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1540980 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ali TM, Padmanathan N, Selladurai S (2015) Effect of nanofiller CeO2 on structural, conductivity, and dielectric behaviors of plasticized blend nano composite polymer electrolyte. Ionics 21:829–840.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11581-014-1240-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Choi J, Clarke N, Winey KI, Composto RJ (2014) Fast polymer diffusion through nanocomposites with anisotropic particles. ACS Macro Lett 3:886–891.  https://doi.org/10.1021/mz500344h CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rajendrana S, Mahendranb O, Krishnaveni K (2003) Effect of CeO2 on conductivity of PMMA/PEO polymer blend electrolytes. J New Mater Electrochem Syst 6:25–28Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mahendrakar S, Anna M, Reddy MJ (2015) Structural,morphological and FTIR of PVD-HFP and lithium terafluoroborate salt as polymer electrolyte membrane in lithium ion batteries. Int J ChemTech Res 8(12):319–328Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    MacCallum, JR, Vincent CA (1987,89) Eds., Polymer electrolyte reviews, Vol. I and II, Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kamisan AS, Kudin TIT, Ali AMM, Yahya MZA (2011) Electrical and physical studies on 49% methyl-grafted natural rubber-based composite polymer gel electrolytes. Electrochim Acta 57:207–211.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2011.06.096 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liang CC (1973) Conduction characteristics of the lithium iodide aluminium oxide solide electrolytes. J Electro chem Soc 120:1289.  https://doi.org/10.1149/1.2403248 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Maier J, Lasker AL, Chandra S (eds) (1989) Superionic solids and solid electrolytes. Academic press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wagner JB Jr (1989) In: Takahashi T (ed) High conductivity solid ionic conductors. World Scientific, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chandra A, Srivastava PC, Chandra S (1995) Ion transport studies in PEO∶NH4I polymer electrolytes with dispersed Al2O3. J Mat Sci 30:3633–3638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Poulsen FW (1987) The effect of different internal surfaces in composite lithium electrolytes. J Power Sour 20:317–325.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-7753(87)80130-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shastry MCR, Rao KJ (1992) High ionic conductivity and unusual thermodynamic properties of silver iodideinAgIAl2O3 nanocomposites. Solid St Ionics 51:311–316.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0167738(96)00207X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Uvarov NF, Isupov VP, Sharma V, Shukla AK (1994) Nanocomposite ionic conductors in the Li2SO4Al2O3system. Solid State Ionics 51 74(1–2):15–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2738(94)90432-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vellacheri R, Haddad AA, Zhao H, Wang W, Wang C, Lein Y (2014) High performance supercapacitor for efficient energy storage under extreme environmental temperatures. Nano Energy 8:231–237.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2014.06.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Maier J (1995) Ionic conduction in space charge regions. Prog Solid State Chem 23:171–263.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0079-6786(95)00004-E CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ramya R, Sangaranarayanan MV (2008) Analysis of polypyrrol-coated stainless steel electrodes—estimation of specific capacitances and construction of equivalent circuit. J Chem Sci 120:25–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chunnian C, Wei F, Ting M, Xuwang F (2014) Fabrication of functionalized nitrogen-doped graphene for supercapacitor electrodes. Ionics 20:1489–1494.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11581-014-1231-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sun YQ, Wu QO, Shi GQ (2011) Graphene based new energy materials. Energy Environ Sci 4(4):1113–1132.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C0EE00683A CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu R, Lee SB (2008) MnO2/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)coaxial nanowires by one-step coelectrode position for electrochemical energy storage. J Am Chem Soc 130(10):2942–2943.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ja7112382 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tripathi M, Kumar A (2017) Polymer gel electrolyte for its application in EDLCs, CommunicatedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tripathi M, Tripathi SK (2017) Electrical studies on ionic liquid based gel polymer electrolyte for its application in EDLCs. Ionics 23:2735–2746.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11581-017-2051-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cullity BD (1956) Elements of X-ray diffraction, 2nd edn. Addison Wesley Company, USAGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pandey GP, Agrawal RC, Hashmi SA (2011) Magnesium ion-conducting gel polymer electrolytes dispersed with fumed silica for rechargeable magnesium battery application. J Solid State Electrochem 15:2253–2264.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10008-010-1240-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kumar D, Hashmi SA (2010) Ion transport and ion–filler-polymer interaction in poly(methyl methacrylate)-based, sodium ion conducting, gel polymer electrolytes dispersed with silica nanoparticles. J Power Sources 195:5101–5108.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.02.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Xing W, Qiao SZ, Ding RG, Li F, Lu GQ, Yan ZF, Cheng HM (2006) Superior electric double layer capacitors using ordered mesoporous carbons. Carbon 44:216–224.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2005.07.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sharma JP, Sekhon SS (2007) Nandispersed polymer gel electrolyte conductivity modification with the addition of PMMA and fumed silica. Solid State Ionics 178:439–445.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2007.01.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Conway BE (1999) Electrochemical supercapacitors scientific fundamentals and technical applications. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hashmi SA, Latham RJ, Linford RG (1997) Polymer electrolyte based solid state redox supercapacitors with poly(3-methyl thiophene) and polypyrrole conducting polymer electrode. Ionics 3:177–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ganesh B, Kalpana D, Renganathan NG (2008) Acrylamide based proton conducting polymer gel electrolyte for electrical double layer capacitor. Ionics 14:339–343.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11581-008-0230-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tien CP, Liang WJ, Kuo PL, Teng HS (2008) Electrical double layer capacitors with gelled polymer electrolytes based on poly(ethylene oxide) cured with poly(propylene oxide) diamines. Electrochim Acta 53:4505–4511.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2008.01.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jaypee University of Engineering and TechnologyGunaIndia

Personalised recommendations