pp 1–9 | Cite as

Voltammetric determination of dopamine in the presence of tyrosine using graphite screen-printed electrode modified with graphene quantum dots

  • Hadi Beitollahi
  • Zahra Dourandish
  • Mohammad Reza Ganjali
  • Shahryar Shakeri
Original Papers


Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter that belongs to the catecholamine group and plays a very significant role in the central nervous, renal, hormonal, and cardiovascular systems. As a result, dysfunction of the dopaminergic system in the central nervous system (CNS) has been related to neurological disorders such as schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease. Therefore, in this work, a screen-printed electrode was modified by graphene quantum dots (GQD/SPE) in order to be used as sensor for dopamine in the presence of tyrosine. To evaluate the efficiency of the developed electrode toward detection of dopamine and tyrosine in aqueous solutions, various electrochemical methods including cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CHA), and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques were employed. Application of GQD/SPE created a separation of 435 mV in the oxidation peak potentials of dopamine and tyrosine. The calibration curves were within the range of 0.1–1000.0 and 1.0–900.0 μM for dopamine and tyrosine, respectively. The detection limits (S/N = 3) were determined as 0.05 and 0.5 μM for dopamine and tyrosine, respectively. The diffusion coefficients using chronoamperometry at the surface of modified electrode were determined as 9.0 × 10−5 and 6.4 × 10−5 cm2 s−1 for dopamine and tyrosine, respectively.


Graphene quantum dots Dopamine Tyrosine Differential pulse voltammetry sensing 


  1. 1.
    Xu Z, Chu X, Jiang H, Schilling H, Chen S, Feng J (2017) Induced dopaminergic neurons: a new promise for Parkinson’s disease. Redox Biol 11:606–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cukierman DS, Pinheiro AB, Castiñeiras-Filho SL, Da Silva ASP, De Falco MMC, Landeira-Fernandez J (2017) A moderate metal-binding hydrazone meets the criteria for a bioinorganic approach towards Parkinson’s disease: therapeutic potential, blood-brain barrier crossing evaluation and preliminary toxicological studies. J Inorg Biochem 170:160–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nishijima H, Ueno T, Kon T, Haga R, Funamizu Y, Arai A, Tomiyama M (2017) Effects of duloxetine on motor and mood symptoms in Parkinson’s disease: an open-label clinical experience. J Neurol Sci 375:186–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ashoka NB, Swamy BK, Jayadevappa H (2017) Electrochemical studies of dopamine in presence of uric acid and hydroquinone at TiO2 nanoparticles: a voltammetric study. Ionics.
  5. 5.
    Wang H, Ren F, Yue R, Wang C, Zhai C, Du Y (2014) Macroporous flower-like graphene-nanosheet clusters used for electrochemical determination of dopamine. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 448:181–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chung YC, Huang JY (2014) Water-borne composite coatings using nanoparticles modified with dopamine derivatives. Thin Solid Films 570:376–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ye F, Feng C, Jiang J, Han S (2015) Simultaneous determination of dopamine, uric acid and nitrite using carboxylated graphene oxide/lanthanum modified electrode. Electrochim Acta 182:935–945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhang D, Li L, Ma W, Chen X, Zhang Y (2017) Electrodeposited reduced graphene oxide incorporating polymerization of L-lysine on electrode surface and its application in simultaneous electrochemical determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid. Mater Sci Eng C 70:241–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tsai TH, Thiagarajan S, Chen SM, Cheng CY (2012) Ionic liquid assisted synthesis of nano Pd–Au particles and application for the detection of epinephrine, dopamine and uric acid. Thin Solid Films 520:3054–3059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Thomas T, Mascarenhas RJ, Nethravathi C, Rajamathi M, Swamy BK (2011) Graphite oxide bulk modified carbon paste electrode for the selective detection of dopamine: a voltammetric study. J Electroanal Chem 659:113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fathalla AM, Soliman AM, Moustafa AA (2017) Selective a 2A receptors blockade reduces degeneration of substantia nigra dopamine neurons in a rotenone-induced rat model of Parkinson’s disease: a histological study. Neurosci Lett 643:89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Davidson DF, Grosset K, Grosset D (2007) Parkinson’s disease: the effect of L-dopa therapy on urinary free catecholamines and metabolites. Ann Clin Biochem 44:364–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hornykiewicz O (1998) Biochemical aspects of Parkinson’s disease. Neurol 51:S2–S9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dervisevic M, Senel M, Cevik E (2017) Novel impedimetric dopamine biosensor based on boronic acid functional polythiophene modified electrodes. Mater Sci Eng C 72:641–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Beck G, Hanusch C, Brinkkoetter P, Rafat N, Schulte J, Van Ackern K, Yard B (2005) Effects of dopamine on cellular and humoral immune responses in septic patients. Anaesthesist 54:1012–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    D’Souza OJ, Mascarenhas RJ, Satpati AK, Aiman LV, Mekhalif Z (2016) Electrocatalytic oxidation of l-tyrosine at carboxylic acid functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified carbon paste electrode. Ionics 22:405–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Beitollahi H, Salimi H (2016) A triple electrochemical platform for simultaneous determination of isoproterenol, acetaminophen and tyrosine based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with hematoxylin and graphene. J Electrochem Soc 163:H1157–H1164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Movlaee K, Beitollahi H, Ganjali MR, Norouzi P (2017) Strategy for simultaneous determination of droxidopa, acetaminophen and tyrosine using carbon paste electrode modified with graphene and ethyl 2-(4-ferrocenyl-[1, 2, 3] triazol-1-yl) acetate. J Electrochem Soc 164:H407–H412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kumar M, Swamy BK, Asif MM, Viswanath CC (2017) Preparation of alanine and tyrosine functionalized graphene oxide nanoflakes and their modified carbon paste electrodes for the determination of dopamine. Appl Surf Sci 399:411–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gibson NR, Jahoor F, Ware L, Jackson AA (2002) Endogenous glycine and tyrosine production is maintained in adults consuming a marginal-protein diet. Am J Clin Nutr 75:511–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rahman MM, Lopa NS, Kim K, Lee JJ (2015) Selective detection of L-tyrosine in the presence of ascorbic acid, dopamine, and uric acid at poly (thionine)-modified glassy carbon electrode. J Electroanal Chem 754:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chitravathi S, Swamy BK, Mamatha GP, Chandrashekar BN (2012) Electrocatalytic oxidation of tyrosine at poly (threonine)-film modified carbon paste electrode and its voltammetric determination in real samples. J Mol Liq 172:130–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhou S, Wu H, Wu Y, Shi H, Feng X, Huang H, Song W (2013) Large surface area carbon material with ordered mesopores for highly selective determination of l-tyrosine in the presence of l-cysteine. Electrochim Acta 112:90–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu X, Luo L, Ding Y, Kang Z, Ye D (2012) Simultaneous determination of L-cysteine and L-tyrosine using Au-nanoparticles/poly-eriochrome black T film modified glassy carbon electrode. Bioelectrochemistry 86:38–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chrastil J (1986) Spectrophotometric determination of tryptophan and tyrosine in peptides and proteins based on new color reactions. Anal Biochem 158:443–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Da Cruz Vieira I, Fatibello-Filho O (1998) Spectrophotometric determination of methyldopa and dopamine in pharmaceutical formulations using a crude extract of sweet potato root (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) as enzymatic source. Talanta 46:559–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Deng C, Deng Y, Wang B, Yang X (2002) Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method for determination of phenylalanine and tyrosine in neonatal blood spots. J Chromatogr B 780:407–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Patel BA, Arundell M, Parker KH, Yeoman MS, Hare DO (2005) Simple and rapid determination of serotonin and catecholamines in biological tissue using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. J Chromatogr B 818:269–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Götze L, Hegele A, Metzelder SK, Renz H, Nockher WA (2012) Development and clinical application of a LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of various tyrosine kinase inhibitors in human plasma. Clin Chim Acta 413:143–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Musshoff F, Schmidt P, Dettmeyer R, Priemer F, Jachau K, Madea B (2000) Determination of dopamine and dopamine-derived (R)-/(S)-salsolinol and norsalsolinol in various human brain areas using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Forensic Sci Int 113:359–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Letellier S, Garnier JP, Spy J, Bousquet B (1997) Determination of the L-dopa/L-tyrosine ratio in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography: usefulness as a marker in metastatic malignant melanoma. J Chromatogr B 696:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Carlsson A, Lindqvist M (1978) Dependence of 5-HT and catecholamine synthesis on concentrations of precursor amino-acids in rat brain. Naunyn Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol 303:157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhang L, Teshima N, Hasebe T, Kurihara M, Kawashima T (1999) Flow-injection determination of trace amounts of dopamine by chemiluminescence detection. Talanta 50:677–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nagles E, Ibarra L, Llanos JP, Hurtado J, Garcia-Beltrán O (2017) Development of a novel electrochemical sensor based on cobalt (II) complex useful in the detection of dopamine in presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid. J Electroanal Chem 788:38–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pekin M, Bayraktepe DE, Yazan Z (2017) Electrochemical sensor based on a sepiolite clay nanoparticle-based electrochemical sensor for ascorbic acid detection in real-life samples. Ionics 23:3487–3495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hou C, Liu H, Zhang D, Yang C, Zhang M (2016) Synthesis of ZnO nanorods-Au nanoparticles hybrids via in-situ plasma sputtering-assisted method for simultaneous electrochemical sensing of ascorbic acid and uric acid. J Alloys Compd 666:178–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mahmoudi Moghaddam H, Beitollahi H, Dehghannoudeh G, Forootanfar H (2017) A label-free electrochemical biosensor based on carbon paste electrode modified with graphene and ds-DNA for the determination of the anti-cancer drug tamoxifen. J Electrochem Soc 164:B372–B376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Priyatharshni S, Divagar M, Viswanathan C, Mangalaraj D, Ponpandian N (2016) Electrochemical simultaneous detection of dopamine, ascorbic acid and uric acid using LaMnO3 nanostructures. J Electrochem Soc 163:B460–B465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Peng Y, Di J (2017) Fabrication of nanoporous AuPt nanoparticles modified indium tin oxide electrode and their electrocatalytic effect. Ionics 23:1203–1208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bollella P, Mazzei F, Favero G, Fusco G, Ludwig R, Gorton L, Antiochia R (2017) Improved DET communication between cellobiose dehydrogenase and a gold electrode modified with a rigid self-assembled monolayer and green metal nanoparticles: the role of an ordered nanostructuration. Biosens Bioelectron 88:196–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bukkitgar SD, Shetti NP, Kulkarni RM (2017) Electro-oxidation and determination of 2-thiouracil at TiO2 nanoparticles-modified gold electrode. Surf. Interface 6:127–133Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Martín-Yerga D, Costa Rama E, García A (2016) Electrochemical study and determination of electroactive species with screen-printed electrodes. J Chem Educ 93:1270–1276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ochiai L, Agustini MD, Figueiredo-Filho LC, Banks CE, Marcolino-Junior LH, Bergamini MF (2017) Electroanalytical thread-device for estriol determination using screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with carbon nanotubes. Sensors Actuators B 241:978–984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kong FY, Gu SX, Li W, Chen TT, Xu Q, Wang W (2014) A paper disk equipped with graphene/polyaniline/Au nanoparticles/glucose oxidase biocomposite modified screen-printed electrode: toward whole blood glucose determination. Biosens Bioelectron 56:77–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sun W, Gong S, Deng Y, Li T, Cheng Y, Wang W, Wang L (2014) Electrodeposited nickel oxide and graphene modified carbon ionic liquid electrode for electrochemical myglobin biosensor. Thin Solid Films 562:653–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tan F, Cong L, Li X, Zhao Q, Zhao H, Quan X, Chen J (2016) An electrochemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted polypyrrole/graphene quantum dots composite for detection of bisphenol A in water samples. Sensors Actuators B 233:599–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yang Y, Liu Q, Liu Y, Cui J, Liu H, Wang P, Dong Y (2017) A novel label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on functionalized nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots for carcinoembryonic antigen detection. Biosens Bioelectron 90:31–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hmar JJL, Majumder T, Dhar S, Mondal SP (2016) Sulfur and nitrogen co-doped graphene quantum dot decorated ZnO nanorod/polymer hybrid flexible device for photosensing applications. Thin Solid Films 612:274–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wang L, Tricard S, Yue P, Zhao J, Fang J, Shen W (2016) Polypyrrole and graphene quantum dots@ Prussian blue hybrid film on graphite felt electrodes: application for amperometric determination of l-cysteine. Biosens Bioelectron 77:1112–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Çolak AT, Eren T, Lütfi Yola ML, Beşli E, Şahin O, Atar N (2016) 3D Polyoxometalate-functionalized graphene quantum dots with nono-metallic and bi-metallic nanoparticles for application in direct methanol fuel cells. J Electrochem Soc 163:F1237–F1244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yola ML, Atar N (2016) Functionalized graphene quantum dots with bi-metallic nanoparticles composite: sensor application for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid and tryptophan. J Electrochem Soc 163:B718–B725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Yola ML, Atar N (2017) A highly efficient nanomaterial with molecular imprinting polymer: carbon nitride nanotubes decorated with graphene quantum dots for sensitive electrochemical determination of chlorpyrifos. J Electrochem Soc 164:B223–B229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Onaç C, Kaya A, Alpoğuz HK, Yola ML, Eriskin S, Atar N, Şener İ (2017) Recovery of Cr (VI) by using a novel calix[4]arene polymeric membrane with modified graphene quantum dots. Int J Environ Sci Technol 14:2423–2434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Akyıldırım O, Kardaş F, Beytur M, Yüksek H, Atar N, Yola ML (2017) Palladium nanoparticles functionalized graphene quantum dots with molecularly imprinted polymer for electrochemical analysis of citrinin. J Mol Liq 243:677–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Yola ML, Atar N (2017) Electrochemical detection of atrazine by platinum nanoparticles/carbon nitride nanotubes with molecularly imprinted polymer. Ind Eng Chem Res 2017(56):7631–7639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zhou X, Gao X, Song F, Wang C, Chu F, Wu S (2017) A sensing approach for dopamine determination by boronic acid-functionalized molecularly imprinted graphene quantum dots composite. App Surf Sci 423:810–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Li Y, Jiang Y, Mo T, Zhou H, Li Y, Li S (2016) Highly selective dopamine sensor based on graphene quantum dots self-assembled monolayers modified electrode. J Electroanal Chem 767:84–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dong S, Bi Q, Qiao C, Sun Y, Zhang X, Lu X, Zhao L (2017) Electrochemical sensor for discrimination tyrosine enantiomers using graphene quantum dotsand β-cyclodextrins composites. Talanta 173:94–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bard AJ, Faulkner LR (2001) Electrochemical methods fundamentals and applications, second edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environment Department, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental SciencesGraduate University of Advanced TechnologyKermanIran
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryGraduate University of Advanced TechnologyKermanIran
  3. 3.Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of ChemistryUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  4. 4.Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology & Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental SciencesGraduate University of Advanced TechnologyKermanIran

Personalised recommendations