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Dramatic reduction in the densification temperature of garnet-type solid electrolytes

Abstract

Cubic garnet Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) and similar compositions of fast ion-conducting solid-state electrolytes have shown great potential for the development of high-energy-density solid-state Li-ion batteries. Although these materials have shown unprecedented ionic conductivities and chemical stability, these materials require high processing temperatures for synthesis. For many of the common compositions of LLZO, temperatures above 1000 °C are required to form the cubic garnet phase and to achieve high conductivities. Therefore, lowering the processing temperatures of these materials is of great interest for the purposes of scalability and fabrication. It has been reported that a Bi co-dopant not only stabilizes the cubic garnet phase but also lowers the densification temperature. In this study, Li6La3ZrBiO12 (LLZBO) was prepared by a rapid-induction hot-pressing technique and characterized using a variety of techniques, including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. We demonstrate the ability to synthesize phase-pure LLZBO with higher relative densities (~ 94%) than can be achieved by pressure-less sintering methods, at pressing temperatures of only 850 °C. The ionic conductivity was measured to be 0.1 mS cm−1, which is comparable to the best reported conductivities of high-density LLZO. This demonstrates the ability to fabricate dense, phase-pure, and high-conductivity LLZBO at temperatures significantly lower than other garnet compositions, which will prove useful for scalability and reducing reactivity with cathodes during densification.

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Funding

This work was supported by the Ford Motor Company Alliance Program.

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Correspondence to Jeff Sakamoto.

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Cite this article

Wang, M., Sakamoto, J. Dramatic reduction in the densification temperature of garnet-type solid electrolytes. Ionics 24, 1861–1868 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11581-018-2464-z

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11581-018-2464-z

Keywords

  • Solid-state electrolyte
  • Hot-pressing
  • Low densification temperature
  • Garnet