, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 1029–1037 | Cite as

Enhancing battery performance by nano Si addition to Li4Ti5O12 as anode material on lithium-ion battery

  • Sarah Alya Firnadya
  • Anne Zulfia Syahrial
  • Achmad Subhan
Original Paper


The lithium-ion battery is a battery that is being developed to become a repository of energy, particularly for electric vehicles. Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) anodes are quite promising for this application because of its zero-strain properties so it can withstand the high rate. However, the capacity of LTO (Li4Ti5O12) is still relatively low. Therefore, the LTO needs to be combined with other materials that have high capacity such as Si. Silicon has a very high capacity which is 4200 mAh/g, but it has a high volume of the expansion. Nano-size can also help increase the capacity. Therefore composite of LTO/nano Si is made to create an anode with a high capacity and also stability. Nano Si is added with a variation of 1, 5, and 10%. LTO/nano Si composite is characterized using XRD, SEM-EDX, and TEM-EDX. Then, to determine the battery performance, EIS, CV, and CD tests were conducted. From those tests, it is studied that Si improves the conductivity of the anode, but not significantly. The addition of Si results a greater battery capacity which is 262.54 mAh/g in the LTO-10% Si. Stability of composite LTO/nano Si is good, evidenced by the coulomb efficiency at the high rate of close to 100%.


Li4Ti5O12/nano Si composite Li4Ti5O12 Nano Si Li-ion battery 



The author would like to thank Directorate Research and Public Services Universitas Indonesia for their financial support to do this research under HIBAH PITTA 2017 with contract no. 736/UN2.R3.1/HKP.05.00/2017.


  1. 1.
    Scrosati B, Garche J (2010) Lithium batteries: status, prospects and future. J Power Sources 195(9):2419–2430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jaguemont J, Boulon L, Dubé Y (2016) A comprehensive review of lithium-ion batteries used in hybrid and electric vehicles at cold temperatures. Appl Energy 164:99–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mu D, Chen Y, Wu B, Huang R, Jiang Y, Li L, Wu F (2016) Nano-sized Li4Ti5O12/C anode material with ultrafast charge/discharge capability for lithium ion batteries. J Alloys Compd 671:157–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yang J (2015) Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yuan X, Liu H, and Zhang J (2011) Lithium-ion batteries: advanced materials and technologies. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Verma P, Maire P, Novak P (2010) A review of the features and analyses of the solid electrolyte interphase in Li-ion batteries. Electrochim Acta 55(22):6332–6341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tobergte DR and Curtis S (2013) Handbook of Battery Materials, vol. 53, no. 9. Wiley-VCH, Oak RidgeGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nitta N, Wu F, Lee JT, Yushin G (2015) Li-ion battery materials: present and future. Mater Today 18(5):252–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yoshio M, Rodd RJ, and Kozawa A (2009) A review of positive electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Priyono B, Syahrial AZ, Yuwono AH, Kartini E, Marfelly M, Rahmatulloh WMF (2015) Synthesis of lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) through hydrothermal process by using lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) xerogel. Int J Technol 4:555–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Belharouak I, Koenig GM, Amine K (2011) Electrochemistry and safety of Li4Ti5O12 and graphite anodes paired with LiMn2O4 for hybrid electric vehicle Li-ion battery applications. J Power Sources 196(23):10344–10350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Takami N, Hoshina K, Inagaki H (2011) Lithium diffusion in Li4/3Ti5/3O4 particles during insertion and extraction. J Electrochem Soc 158(6):A725–A730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hsieh C, Lin J (2010) Influence of Li addition on charge/discharge behavior of spinel lithium titanate. J Alloys Compd 506(1):231–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhao B, Ran R, Liu M, Shao Z (2015) A comprehensive review of Li4Ti5O12-based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries: the latest advancements and future perspectives. Mater Sci Eng R Rep 98:1–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kim J, Shi D, Park M, Jeong G, Heo Y, Seo M, Kim Y (2013) Controlled Ag-driven superior rate-capability of Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 anodes for lithium rechargeable batteries. Nano Res 6(5):365–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ruiyi L, Yuanyuan J, Xiaoyan Z, Zaijun L, Zhiguo G, Guangli W, Junkang L (2015) Significantly enhanced electrochemical performance of lithium titanate anode for lithium ion battery by the hybrid of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots. Electrochim Acta 178:303–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Owen JR (1997) Rechargeable lithium batteries. Elsevier, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen C, Agrawal R, Wang C (2015) High performance Li4Ti5O12/Si composite anodes for Li-ion batteries. Nano 5:1469–1480Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tio N, Carbon À, Jeong G, Kim J, Park M, Seo M, Hwang SM, and Kim Y (2014) Core À shell structured silicon mesoporous microfiber composite as a safe and high-performance lithium-ion battery anode. (3):2977–2985Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Baek SH, Park JS, Jeong YM, Kim JH (2016) Facile synthesis of Ag-coated silicon nanowires as anode materials for high-performance rechargeable lithium battery. J Alloys Compd 660:387–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yom JH, Hwang SW, Cho SM, Yoon WY (2016) Improvement of irreversible behavior of SiO anodes for lithium ion batteries by a solid state reaction at high temperature. J Power Sources 311:159–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rosso M (2016) Silicon as anode material for Li-ion batteries. Mater Sci Eng B 213:2–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Subburaj T, Prasanna K, Kim KJ, Ilango PR, Jo YN, Lee CW (2015) Structural and electrochemical evaluation of bismuth doped lithium titanium oxides for lithium ion batteries. J Power Sources 280:23–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Alias N, Mohamad AA (2015) Advances of aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery: a review. J Power Sources 274:237–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Narayana KA (2014) Electrode and electrolyte lithium-ion batteries. University of Kentucky, LexingtonGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Soon K, Moo C, Chen Y, Hsieh Y (2009) Enhanced coulomb counting method for estimating state-of-charge and state-of-health of lithium-ion batteries. Appl Energy 86(9):1506–1511CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah Alya Firnadya
    • 1
  • Anne Zulfia Syahrial
    • 1
  • Achmad Subhan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Metallurgy and Materials, Faculty of EngineeringUniversitas IndonesiaDepokIndonesia
  2. 2.Center for Research of Physics, LIPITangerangIndonesia

Personalised recommendations