, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 1075–1081 | Cite as

Hard carbon derived from corn straw piths as anode materials for sodium ion batteries

  • Yuan-En Zhu
  • Haichen Gu
  • Ya-Nan Chen
  • Donghui Yang
  • Jinping Wei
  • Zhen Zhou
Original Paper


Hard carbon is considered as the most promising anode material for practical sodium ion batteries. Herein, we report biomass-derived hard carbon made from corn straw piths through a simple carbonization process. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra elucidated highly disordered structures, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the hard carbons have many local ordered structures containing turbostratic nanodomains and more nanovoids surround the turbostratic nanodomains. The electrochemical performances of the hard carbons were systematically investigated in sodium ion batteries. By optimizing the carbonization temperature, the sample carbonized at 1400 °C (HC1400) exhibited high reversible capacity of 310 mAh g−1 and good cycling stability; the capacity can still retain 274 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles. More importantly, HC1400 can deliver reversible capacity of 206 mAh g−1 with 79% retention rate after 700 cycles measured at a current density of 200 mA g−1, which is much better than those in most previous reports. This study provides a way to develop inexpensive, renewable, and recyclable materials from biomasses towards next-generation energy storage applications.


Hard carbon Corn straw piths Biomass-derived carbon Sodium ion batteries High performance 



This work was supported by NSFC (21421001 and 21773126) in China.

Supplementary material

11581_2017_2260_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.8 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1892 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tianjin Key Laboratory of Metal and Molecule Based Material Chemistry, Institute of New Energy Material Chemistry, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), School of Materials Science and Engineering, National Institute for Advanced MaterialsNankai UniversityTianjinChina

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