Demografische Alterung und Reformen der Alterssicherung in Europa – Probleme der ökonomischen, sozialen und politischen Nachhaltigkeit

Article

Zusammenfassung

Die demografische Alterung gilt als eine der langfristigen Herausforderungen für die Alterssicherung in Europa, insbesondere für den Generationenvertrag staatlicher Rentensysteme. In einer vergleichenden makro-soziologischen Analyse werden die demografische Entwicklung, politischen Restriktionen und sozialpolitischen Reformdynamiken in Europa untersucht. Alle europäischen Gesellschaften werden aufgrund demografischer Alterung langfristig Nachhaltigkeitsprobleme der Alterssicherung haben. Trotz zahlreicher Reformen unterscheiden sich die europäischen Sozialstaaten jedoch im Zeitpunkt des Renteneintritts sowie dem Ausmaß umlagefinanzierter Alterssicherung. Der Vergleich von zehn europäischen Sozialstaaten zeigt die Unterschiede in der Umkehrung der Frühverrentung und der Verlagerung auf kapitalgedeckte Altersvorsorge. Neben der finanziellen Nachhaltigkeit verweist der Beitrag jedoch auch auf weitere Nachhaltigkeitsprobleme, insbesondere der sozialen Ungleichheit und politischen Durchsetzbarkeit, die es neben der demografischen Herausforderung zu bewältigen gilt.

Schlüsselwörter

Demografische Alterung Frühverrentung Altersvorsorge Rentenreformen Nachhaltigkeit Sozialstaat Europa 

Demographic Ageing and Pension Reforms in Europe: Problems of Economic, Social and Political Sustainability

Abstract

Ageing is one of the long-term challenges for old age security in Europe, in particular for the intergenerational contract of pay-as-you go public pensions. The comparative macro-sociological analysis maps the demographic trends, political constraints, and social policy reform dynamics across Europe. Due to demographic ageing all European societies face long-term sustainability problems of their pension systems. Despite many reforms, European welfare states differ in the timing of retirement and the extent of pay-as-you-go public pensions. The comparison of ten European welfare states reveals the cross-national variations in reducing early retirement and in partially shifting to prefunded pensions. In addition to financial sustainability, the contribution also discusses other sustainability issues, particularly social inequality and political feasibility, which must be overcome in addition to the demographic challenge.

Keywords

Demographic ageing Early retirement Pension systems Reform politics Sustainability Welfare state Europe 

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Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für MakrosoziologieUniversität MannheimMannheimDeutschland

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