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Positive Effekte sozialen Faulenzens beim Lösen komplexer Probleme

  • Annette Feuchter
  • Joachim FunkeEmail author
I. Abhandlungen

Zusammenfassung

Mit dem Begriff „Soziales Faulenzen“ sind Motivations-und Leistungsverluste in Gruppen bezeichnet worden, die durch sinkende Verantwortlichkeit der Gruppenteilnehmer für das Leistungsergebnis entstehen. Neuere Studien ließen daran Zweifel aufkommen und postulierten ein paradoxes Verhältnis von Motivation und Gruppenleistung derart, dass bei geringerer Motivation höhere Leistung zu erwarten sei. Die vorliegende Arbeit dient der Klärung dieser Frage. Es werden zwei Experimente berichtet, in denen jeweils 60 Personen in Dreiergruppen ein computersimuliertes Waldbrand-Szenario (Networked Fire Chief) bearbeiteten. Variiert wurden die Schwierigkeit (leichte versus schwierigere Version) sowie die Verantwortlichkeit (koaktiv versus kollektiv). Während in Experiment 1 die Teilnehmenden nur auf dem ihnen zugewiesenen Spielfeld-Teil agieren konnten, konnten sie in Experiment 2 auf allen Teilfeldern agieren. Gemessen wurden Anstrengung und Leistung auf individueller wie Gruppenebene. Im Ergebnis zeigt sich unter Bedingungen kollektiver Verantwortlichkeit erwartungsgemäß ein Nachlassen der Anstrengung. Interessanterweise führt dies jedoch nicht zu einem Abfall der Leistung; unter der schwierigeren Bedingung zeigt sich vielmehr paradoxerweise eine erhöhte Leistung bei sinkender Anstrengung. Diskutiert werden die Konsequenzen für die Theorie kollektiver Anstrengung von Karau und Williams, deren Modell um weitere Einflussfaktoren ergänzt werden muss.

Stichworte

Soziales Faulenzen Trittbrettfahren komplexes Problemlösen Networked Fire Chief Motivation Leistung 

Abstract

The term “social loafing” refers to a decrease in motivation and achievement in group work due to sinking responsibility of the individual for the groups’ outcome. Recent studies assume a paradoxical relation between motivation and outcome, which should produce better outcome with decreased motivation. The current study addresses this question. Two experiments with N=60 subjects working in groups of 3 are reported. Subjects had to deal with a computer simulated scenario of a fire fighting situation. There was a simple and a more complex version; also, individual responsibility for the groups’ outcome was either given (coactive condition) or not (collective condition). During experiment 1, subjects could only deal with their own section of the scenario; in experiment 2, they were allowed to work on the whole field. Dependent variables were effort (in terms of commands given) and achievement (in terms of space saved). It turned out that under collective responsibility effort was reduced but this did not lead to decreased achievement. Under the complex condition, with decreased effort even an increase in achievement could be demonstrated. Implications for the collective effort model presented by Karau and Williams are discussed.

Keywords

social loafing free-riding complex problem solving networked fire chief motivation achievement 

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Copyright information

© VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften/Wiesbaden 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychologisches Institut der Universität HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany

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