Advertisement

Management International Review

, Volume 57, Issue 3, pp 473–500 | Cite as

Shared Consumer Needs Across India and China: A Path to Global Advertising of Services?

  • Pradip H. Sadarangani
  • Anup Krishnamurthy
  • Richard P. Bagozzi
Research Article

Abstract

Global advertising often uses cultural values to standardize globally advertised messages. However, this exploratory study investigates the possibility that rather than cultural values (and consumer wants), it is consumer needs that are strongly shared across countries. Therefore, it might be possible to replace cultural values with these shared consumer needs for the standardization of globally advertised messages. This study does not argue against the universality of the content or structure of values, but rather against the universality of the importance of values across countries. The means-end theory is used to link the relationships between consumer wants, needs, and values. Data collected from Indian and Chinese consumers of information technology education services were analyzed using the laddering technique to reveal hierarchical value maps for each of the two country samples. The results indicate that at the level of consumer wants, Indian consumers seek more tangible attributes while Chinese consumers seek more intangible ones. Also, at the level of cultural values, Chinese consumers associate more values with the service than their Indian counterparts. At the same time, within both groups of consumers the same set of consumer needs were strongly shared among consumers; these were the need for knowledge enhancement, the need for skill improvement, and the need for better employability. Therefore, the results suggest that if managers want to successfully standardize their global advertising, their message strategy could focus on consumer needs that are strongly shared across countries.

Keywords

Consumer needs Global advertising Means-end theory Laddering Cross-cultural research 

References

  1. Agrawal, M. (1995). Review of a 40-year debate in international advertising. International Marketing Review, 12(1), 26–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akaka, M. A., & Alden, D. L. (2010). Global brand positioning and perceptions: international advertising and global consumer culture. International Journal of Advertising, 29(1), 37–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arndt, J. (1978). How broad should the marketing concept be? Journal of Marketing, 42(1), 101–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnett, J. J. (2002). The psychology of globalization. American Psychologist, 57(10), 774–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bagozzi, R. P., Bergami, M., & Leone, L. (2003). Hierarchical representation of motives in goal setting. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 915–943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bagozzi, R. P., & Dabholkar, P. A. (1994). Consumer recycling goals and their effect on decisions to recycle: a means-end chain analysis. Psychology and Marketing, 11(4), 313–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bardi, A., Calogero, R. M., & Mullen, B. (2008). A new archival approach to the study of values and value–behavior relations: validation of the value lexicon. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(3), 483–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barrena, R., & Sánchez, M. (2009). Using emotional benefits as a differentiation strategy in saturated markets. Psychology and Marketing, 26(11), 1002–1030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Batra, R., Myers, J. G., & Aaker, D. A. (2009). Advertising management (5th ed.). New Delhi: Pearson.Google Scholar
  10. Bergstrom, M. (2012). All eyes East: Lessons from the frontlines of marketing to China’s youth. NewYork: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blythe, J. (2008). Consumer behaviour. London: Thomson Learning.Google Scholar
  12. Brettel, M., & Spilker-Attig, A. (2010). Online advertising effectiveness: a cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 4(3), 176–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brislin, R. W. (1986). The wording and translation of research instrument. In W. Lonner & J. Berry (Eds.), Field methods in cross-cultural research (pp. 137–164). Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Buttle, F. (1989). The social construction of needs. Psychology and Marketing, 6(3), 197–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cadogan, J. (2010). Comparative, cross-cultural, and cross-national research: a comment on good and bad practice. International Marketing Review, 27(6), 601–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cateora, P. R., & Graham, J. L. (2004). International marketing (12th ed.). Burr Ridge: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  17. Cheong, Y., Zheng, L., & Kim, K. (2011). Product global reach, advertising standardization, and cultural values: an analysis of 2008 Beijing Olympic TV commercials. Asian Journal of Communication, 21(3), 279–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chow, S., & Amir, S. (2006). The universality of values: implications for global advertising strategy. Journal of Advertising Research, 46(3), 301–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chuang, F. M., Morgan, R. E., & Robson, M. J. (2015). Customer and competitor insights, new product development competence, and new product creativity: differential, integrative, and substitution effects. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 32(2), 175–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cohen, J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20(1), 37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cooper, H., & Hedges, L. V. (1994). Research synthesis as a scientific enterprise. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  22. Costa, A. I. D. A., Schoolmeester, D., Dekker, M., & Jongen, W. M. (2003). Exploring the use of consumer collages in product design. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 14(1), 17–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Darley, W., & Luethge, D. (2003). Cross-cultural communications and promotion. In R. Ruginbana & S. Nwankwo (Eds.), Cross-cultural marketing (pp. 141–159). London: Thomson Learning.Google Scholar
  24. Day, G. S. (2002). Managing the market learning process. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 17(4), 240–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. De Mooij, M. (2003). Convergence and divergence in consumer behaviour: implications for global advertising. International Journal of Advertising, 22(2), 183–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Mooij, M. K. (2010). Global marketing and advertising: Understanding cultural paradoxes. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  27. De Mooij, M. (2015). Cross-cultural research in international marketing: clearing up some of the confusion. International Marketing Review, 32(6), 646–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. De Mooij, M., & Hofstede, G. (2002). Convergence and divergence in consumer behavior: implications for international retailing. Journal of Retailing, 78(1), 61–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (2014). The importance of universal psychological needs for understanding motivation in the workplace. In M. Gagne (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of work engagement, motivation, and self-determination theory (pp. 13–32). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Di Mascio, R. (2010). The service models of frontline employees. Journal of Marketing, 74(4), 63–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Doctoroff, T. (2005). Billions: Selling to the new Chinese consumer. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  32. Domzal, T. J., & Kernan, J. B. (1993). Mirror, mirror: some postmodern reflections on global advertising. Journal of Advertising, 22(4), 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Donthu, N., & Yoo, B. (1998). Cultural influences on service quality expectations. Journal of Service Research, 1(2), 178–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Duangboudda, D. (2015). Consumption in China: how China’s new consumer ideology is shaping the nation. Anthropological Quarterly, 88(3), 841–846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fennell, G. (1978). Consumers’ perceptions of the product use situation. The Journal of Marketing, 42(2), 38–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Frost, W. A. K., & Braine, R. L. (1967). The application of the repertory grid technique to problems in market research. Commentary, 9(3), 161–175.Google Scholar
  37. Furnham, A., Kirkcaldy, B. D., & Lynn, R. (1994). National attitudes to competitiveness, money, and work among young people: first, second, and third world differences. Human Relations, 47(1), 119–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Garbarino, E., & Johnson, M. S. (2001). Effects of consumer goals on attribute weighting, overall satisfaction, and product usage. Psychology and Marketing, 18(9), 929–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Garrett, J., & Iyer, R. (2013). International advertising research: a literature review 1990–2010. International Journal of Management, 30(1), 143–159.Google Scholar
  40. Gengler, C. E., Mulvey, M. S., & Oglethorpe, J. E. (1999). A means-end analysis of mothers’ infant feeding choices. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 18(2), 172–188.Google Scholar
  41. Glaser, B. G. (1978). Theoretical sensitivity: Advances in the methodology of grounded theory. Mill Valley: Sociology Press.Google Scholar
  42. Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine-Athestor.Google Scholar
  43. Gong, W., Li, Z. G., & Li, T. (2004). Marketing to China’s youth: a cultural transformation perspective. Business Horizons, 47(6), 41–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gough, I. (2016). Global capital, human needs and social policies. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  45. Grayson, K., & Rust, R. (2001). Interrater reliability. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 10(1), 71–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gupta, V., Hanges, P. J., & Dorfman, P. (2002). Cultural clusters: methodology and findings. Journal of World Business, 37(1), 11–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gutman, J. (1982). A means-end chain model based on consumer categorisation processes. Journal of Marketing, 46(2), 60–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gutman, J. (1997). Means–end chains as goal hierarchies. Psychology and Marketing, 14(6), 545–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Harris, G. (1994). International advertising standardisation: what do the multinationals actually standardise? Journal of International Marketing, 2(4), 13–30.Google Scholar
  50. Hennigs, N., Wiedmann, K. P., Klarmann, C., Strehlau, S., Godey, B., Pederzoli, D., et al. (2012). What is the value of luxury? A cross-cultural consumer perspective. Psychology and Marketing, 29(12), 1018–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hinterhuber, A. (2008). Customer value-based pricing strategies: why companies resist. Journal of Business Strategy, 29(4), 41–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hite, R. E., & Fraser, C. (1988). International advertising strategies of multinational corporations. Journal of Advertising Research, 28(4), 9–17.Google Scholar
  53. Hofstede, G. (1984). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  54. Homburg, C., Ehm, L., & Artz, M. (2015). Measuring and managing consumer sentiment in an online community environment. Journal of Marketing Research, 52(5), 629–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kara, A., Laskey, H. A., & Seaton, F. B. (2015). An application of means-end analysis in a cross-cultural context. In Proceedings of the 1993 World Marketing Congress (pp. 339–343). Springer.Google Scholar
  56. Kaynak, E., & Herbig, P. (2014). Handbook of cross-cultural marketing. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Keegan, W. J. (1969). Multinational product planning: strategic alternatives. Journal of Marketing, 33(1), 58–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Khang, H., Han, S., Shin, S., Jung, A. R., & Kim, M. J. (2015). A retrospective on the state of international advertising research in advertising, communication, and marketing journals: 1963–2014. International Journal of Advertising, 1–29 (ahead-of-print).Google Scholar
  59. Kim, J. O., Forsythe, S., Gu, Q., & Jae Moon, S. (2002). Cross-cultural consumer values, needs and purchase behavior. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 19(6), 481–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kim, K., Hayes, J. L., Avant, J. A., & Reid, L. N. (2014). Trends in advertising research: a longitudinal analysis of leading advertising, marketing, and communication journals, 1980 to 2010. Journal of Advertising, 43(3), 296–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kotler, P., & Keller, K. (2012). Marketing management (14th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  62. Krishnamurthy, A., & Kumar, S. R. (2015). Exploring the formation of consumer expectations. Journal of Customer Behaviour, 14(1), 7–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kuisma, T., Laukkanen, T., & Hiltunen, M. (2007). Mapping the reasons for resistance to internet banking: a means-end approach. International Journal of Information Management, 27(2), 75–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Langerak, F., Peelen, E., & Nijssen, E. (1999). A laddering approach to the use of methods and techniques to reduce the cycle time of new-to-the-firm products. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 16(2), 173–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Laroche, M., Vinhal Nepomuceno, M., & Richard, M. O. (2014). Congruency of humour and cultural values in print ads: cross-cultural differences among the US, France and China. International Journal of Advertising, 33(4), 681–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lerman, D., & Callow, M. (2003). The consumer versus the judge: an empirical comparison of approaches to content analysis in cross-cultural advertising research. Advances in Consumer Research, 30(1), 230–231.Google Scholar
  67. Levitt, T. (1983). The globalisation of world markets. Harvard Business Review, 61(3), 91–102.Google Scholar
  68. Maheswaran, D., & Shavitt, S. (2014). Issues and new directions in global consumer psychology. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 9(2), 59–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. McFarlan, F. W., Jia, N., & Wong, J. (2012). China’s growing IT services and software industry: challenges and implications. MIS Quarterly Executive, 11(1), 1–9.Google Scholar
  70. Megginson, S. (2015). The problems with global ads (especially for the little guy). Point of View, Millward Brown Canada. http://www.millwardbrown.com/docs/default-source/insight-documents/points-of-view/millward-brown_pov_the-problems-with-global-ads.pdf.
  71. Moore, R. L. (2005). Generation ku: individualism and china’s millennial youth. Ethnology, 44(4), 357–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Moran, G., Muzellec, L., & Nolan, E. (2014). Consumer moments of truth in the digital context. Journal of Advertising Research, 54(2), 200–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Moriarty, S. E., & Duncan, T. R. (1990). Global advertising: issues and practices. Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 13(2), 313–341.Google Scholar
  74. Mostovicz, E. I., & Kakabadse, N. (2009). Means-ends laddering: a motivational perspective. Problems and Perspectives in Management: PPM, 7(3), 85–94.Google Scholar
  75. Mueller, B. (1992). Standardisation vs. specialisation: an examination of westernisation in Japanese advertising. Journal of Advertising Research, 32(1), 15–24.Google Scholar
  76. Mueller, B., & Taylor, C. R. (2013). Convergence in global markets: the great standardization versus localization debate is (finally) put to rest. In Media and convergence management (pp. 89–105). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  77. Narver, J. C., Slater, S. F., & MacLachlan, D. L. (2004). Responsive and proactive market orientation and new-product success. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 21(5), 334–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. NASSCOM (2015). India IT-BPM Overview. http://www.nasscom.in/indian-itbpo-industry. Accessed 13 Apr 2016.
  79. Okazaki, S., & Mueller, B. (2007). Cross-cultural advertising research: where we have been and where we need to go. International Marketing Review, 24(5), 499–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Okazaki, S., Mueller, B., & Diehl, S. (2013). A multi-country examination of hard-sell and soft-sell advertising: comparing global consumer positioning in holistic- and analytic-thinking cultures. Journal of Advertising Research, 53(3), 258–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Okazaki, S., Mueller, B., & Taylor, C. R. (2010). Global consumer culture positioning: testing perceptions of soft-sell and hard-sell advertising appeals between U.S. and Japanese consumers. Journal of International Marketing, 18(2), 20–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Onkvisit, S., & Shaw, J. J. (1987). Standardised international advertising: a review and critical evaluation of the theoretical and empirical evidence. Columbia Journal of World Business, 22(3), 43.Google Scholar
  83. Park, H. J., & Rabolt, N. J. (2009). Cultural value, consumption value, and global brand image: a cross-national study. Psychology and Marketing, 26(8), 714–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Patni, A. (1999). Silicon valley of the east. Harvard International Review, 21(4), 8–10.Google Scholar
  85. Paul, M., Hennig-Thurau, T., Gremler, D. D., Gwinner, K. P., & Wiertz, C. (2009). Toward a theory of repeat purchase drivers for consumer services. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 37(2), 215–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pernu, E., Mainela, T., & Puhakka, V. (2015). Creating shared views of customers: individuals as sense-makers in multinational companies. Industrial Marketing Management, 48, 50–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Perreault, W. D., & Leigh, L. E. (1989). Reliability of nominal data based on qualitative judgments. Journal of Marketing Research, 26(2), 135–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Peterman, M. L. (1997). The effects of concrete and abstract consumer goals on information processing. Psychology and Marketing, 14(6), 561–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 19(1), 123–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Phillips, J. M., & Reynolds, T. J. (2009). A hard look at hard laddering: a comparison of studies examining the hierarchical structure of means-end theory. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 12(1), 83–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pieters, R., Baumgartner, H., & Allen, D. (1995). A means-end chain approach to consumer goal structures. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 12(3), 227–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pincus, J. (2004). The consequences of unmet needs: the evolving role of motivation in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Behavior, 3(4), 375–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Podoshen, J. S., Li, L., & Zhang, J. (2011). Materialism and conspicuous consumption in China: a cross-cultural examination. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 35(1), 17–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Reynolds, T. J., & Craddock, A. B. (1988). The application of the meccas model to the development and assessment of advertising strategy: a case study. Journal of Advertising Research, 28(2), 43–55.Google Scholar
  95. Reynolds, T. J., & Gutman, J. (1988). Laddering theory, method, analysis, and interpretation. Journal of Advertising Research, 28(1), 11–31.Google Scholar
  96. Reynolds, T. J., & Phillips, J. M. (2009). A review and comparative analysis of laddering research methods. Review of Marketing Research, 5, 130–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Reynolds, T. J., & Whitlark, D. B. (1995). Applying laddering data to communications strategy and advertising practice. Journal of Advertising Research, 35(4), 9–17.Google Scholar
  98. Riefler, P., Diamantopoulos, A., & Siguaw, J. A. (2012). Cosmopolitan consumers as a target group for segmentation. Journal of International Business Studies, 43(3), 285–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Roberts, S. D., Dant, R. P., & Lim, C. L. (2015). ‘Needs’ and ‘Wants’ in marketing literature: pedagogical difficulties. In Proceedings of the 1990 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference (pp. 264–268). Berlin: Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
  100. Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  101. Sadarangani, P. H., Vani, N., & Krishnamurthy, A. (2011). Aptech limited. ECCH Case Reference Number 511-057-1.Google Scholar
  102. Samiee, S., & Jeong, I. (1994). Cross-cultural research in advertising: an assessment of methodologies. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(3), 205–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Saxenian, A. (2002). Transnational communities and the evolution of global production networks: the cases of Taiwan. China and India. Industry and Innovation, 9(3), 183–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Saxenian, A. (2005). From brain drain to brain circulation: transnational communities and regional upgrading in India and China. Studies in Comparative International Development, 40(2), 35–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values? Journal of Social Issues, 50(4), 19–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Senyszyn, J. (1995). Consumer’s needs. Gdañsk: Gdañsk University Publication.Google Scholar
  107. Sheth, J. N. (1982). Consumer behavior: surpluses and shortages. Advances in Consumer Research, 9(1), 13–16.Google Scholar
  108. Shukla, P., Singh, J., & Banerjee, M. (2015). They are not all same: variations in Asian consumers’ value perceptions of luxury brands. Marketing Letters, 26(3), 265–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Silayoi, P., & Speece, M. (2007). The importance of packaging attributes: a conjoint analysis approach. European Journal of Marketing, 41(11/12), 1495–1517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Siqueira, A. C. O., Priem, R. L., & Parente, R. C. (2015). Demand-side perspectives in international business: themes and future directions. Journal of International Management, 21(4), 261–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Slater, D. (1997). Consumer culture and the politics of need. In M. Nava, A. Blake, I. MacRury, & B. Richards (Eds.), Buy this book: Studies in advertising and consumption (pp. 51–63). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  112. Slater, S. F., & Narver, J. C. (1998). Research notes and communications customer-led and market-oriented: let’s not confuse the two. Strategic Management Journal, 19(10), 1001–1006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sudbury-Riley, L., Kohlbacher, F., & Hofmeister, A. (2015). Baby Boomers of different nations: identifying horizontal international segments based on self-perceived age. International Marketing Review, 32(3/4), 245–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Swoboda, B., Pennemann, K., & Taube, M. (2012). The effects of perceived brand globalness and perceived brand localness in China: empirical evidence on western, Asian, and domestic retailers. Journal of International Marketing, 20(4), 72–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Szu-Chi, H., Broniarczyk, S. M., Ying, Z., & Beruchashvili, M. (2015). From close to distant: the dynamics of interpersonal relationships in shared goal pursuit. Journal of Consumer Research, 41(5), 1252–1266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Tai, S. H. C., & Chan, R. Y. K. (2001). Cross-cultural studies on the information content of service advertising. Journal of Services Marketing, 15(6), 547–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Tay, L., & Diener, E. (2011). Needs and subjective well-being around the world. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(2), 354–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Taylor, C. R., & Okazaki, S. (2015). Do global brands use similar executional styles across cultures? A comparison of U.S. and Japanese television advertising. Journal of Advertising, 44(3), 276–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. van Rekom, J., & Wierenga, B. (2007). On the hierarchical nature of means–end relationships in laddering data. Journal of Business Research, 60(4), 401–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. von Hippel, E. (1992). Adapting market research to the rapid evolution of needs. Working Paper (WP# 3374-92-BPS).Google Scholar
  121. Walker, B. A., & Olson, J. C. (1991). Means-end chains: connecting products with self. Journal of Business Research, 22(2), 111–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Ward, D., & Lasen, M. (2009). An overview of needs theories behind consumerism. Journal of Applied Economic Sciences, 4(1), 7–28.Google Scholar
  123. Winell, M. (1987). Personal goals: The key to self-direction in adulthood. In M. E. Ford & D. H. Fort (Eds.), Humans as self-constructing living systems: Putting the framework to work. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  124. Winit, W., Gregory, G., Cleveland, M., & Verlegh, P. (2014). Global vs. local brands: how home country bias and price differences impact brand evaluations. International Marketing Review, 31(2), 102–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Xu, Y., Chen, Y., Burman, R., & Zhao, H. (2014). Second-hand clothing consumption: a cross-cultural comparison between American and Chinese young consumers. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 38(6), 670–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Yahya, F. (2002). The dragon arises: China’s challenge to India in software development. India Review, 1(4), 91–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Zhang, Y., & Gelb, B. D. (1996). Matching advertising appeals to culture: the influence of products’ use conditions. Journal of Advertising, 25(3), 29–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Zhang, Y., & Khare, A. (2009). The impact of accessible identities on the evaluation of global versus local products. Journal of Consumer Research, 36(3), 524–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Zhang, J., & Shavitt, S. (2003). Cultural values in advertisements to the Chinese X-generation–promoting modernity and individualism. Journal of Advertising, 32(1), 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Zhou, N., & Belk, R. W. (2004). Chinese consumer readings of global and local advertising appeals. Journal of Advertising, 33(3), 63–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Zhou, L., Poon, P., & Wang, H. (2015). Consumers’ reactions to global versus local advertising appeals: a test of culturally incongruent images in China. Journal of Business Research, 68(3), 561–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Zhou, L., Teng, L., & Poon, P. S. (2008). Susceptibility to global consumer culture: a three-dimensional scale. Psychology and Marketing, 25(4), 336–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Zou, S., & Volz, Y. Z. (2010). An integrated theory of global advertising: an application of the GMS theory. International Journal of Advertising: The Quarterly Review of Marketing Communications, 29(1), 57–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pradip H. Sadarangani
    • 1
  • Anup Krishnamurthy
    • 2
  • Richard P. Bagozzi
    • 3
  1. 1.Rajiv Gandhi Indian Institute of ManagementShillongIndia
  2. 2.St. Joseph’s College of Business AdministrationBangaloreIndia
  3. 3.Stephen M. Ross School of BusinessUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations