Journal of Business Economics

, Volume 86, Issue 6, pp 611–645 | Cite as

Path dependence as a barrier to business model change in manufacturing firms: insights from a multiple-case study

  • Sven M. LaudienEmail author
  • Birgit Daxböck
Original Paper


Business model change processes are a still underresearched phenomenon. Especially barriers to business model change and in this context path dependence of business models lack a deeper understanding. We address this issue by examining business model change processes of manufacturing firms that pursue service transition against the background of a multiple-case study. The contribution of our paper is twofold: (1) We show how business model change processes take place in detail. In doing so, we considerably enhance business model literature that employs a processual perspective on business model change. (2) Our findings allow for a new perspective on business model change as we provide empirical evidence that path dependence needs to be considered in this context. We are able to identify determinants and mechanisms that influence to which extent path dependence affects business model change processes. Hence, we enrich business model literature by applying the path dependence concept on a business model level.


Business model change Path dependence Service transition Manufacturing industry Multiple-case study 

JEL Classification

L640 M190 O310 


  1. Amit R, Zott C (2001) Value creation in e-business. Strateg Manag J 22(6–7):493–520. doi: 10.1002/smj.187 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amit R, Zott C (2012) Creating value through business model innovation. MIT Sloan Manag Rev 53(3):41–49Google Scholar
  3. Arthur WB (1989) Competing technologies, increasing returns, and lock-in by historical events. Econ J 99(394):116–131. doi: 10.2307/2234208 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arthur WB (1994) Increasing returns and path dependence in the economy. University of Michigan Press, Ann ArborCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barney J (1991) Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. J Manag 17(1):99–120. doi: 10.1177/014920639101700108 Google Scholar
  6. Bluhm DJ, Harman W, Lee TW, Mitchell TR (2011) Qualitative research in management: a decade of progress. J Manage Stud 48(8):1866–1891. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.2010.00972.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bohnsack R, Pinkse J, Kolk A (2014) Business models for sustainable technologies: exploring business model evolution in the case of electric vehicles. Res Policy 43(2):284–300. doi: 10.1016/j.respol.2013.10.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bowen DE, Jones GR (1986) Transaction cost analysis of service organization-customer exchange. Acad Manag Rev 11(2):428–441. doi: 10.5465/AMR.1986.4283519 Google Scholar
  9. Bowen DE, Siehl C, Schneider B (1989) A framework for analyzing customer service orientations in manufacturing. Acad Manag Rev 14(1):75–95. doi: 10.5465/AMR.1989.4279005 Google Scholar
  10. Bromiley P (1991) Testing a causal model of corporate risk taking and performance. Acad Manag J 34(1):37–59. doi: 10.2307/256301 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bucherer E, Eisert U, Gassmann O (2012) Towards systematic business model innovation: lessons from product innovation management. Creat Innov Manag 21(2):183–198. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8691.2012.00637.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Casadesus-Masanell R, Ricart JE (2010) From strategy to business models and onto tactics. Long Range Plan 43(2):195–215. doi: 10.1016/j.lrp.2010.01.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Casadesus-Masanell R, Zhu F (2013) Business model innovation and competitive imitation: the case of sponsor-based business models. Strateg Manag J 34(4):464–482. doi: 10.1002/smj.2022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cavalcante S, Kesting P, Ulhoi J (2011) Business model dynamics and innovation: (re)establishing the missing linkages. Manag Decis 49(8):1327–1342. doi: 10.1108/00251741111163142 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chakrabarti A (2014) Organizational adaptation in an economic shock: the role of growth reconfiguration. Strategic Manag J (Early View). doi: 10.1002/smj.2309 Google Scholar
  16. Chesbrough H (2007) Business model innovation: it’s not just about technology anymore. Strategy Leadersh 35(6):12–17. doi: 10.1108/10878570710833714 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chesbrough H (2010) Business model innovation: opportunities and barriers. Long Range Plan 43(2):354–363. doi: 10.1016/j.lrp.2009.07.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chesbrough H (2011) Bringing open innovation to services. MIT Sloan Manag Rev 52(2):85–90Google Scholar
  19. Chesbrough H, Rosenbloom RS (2002) The role of the business model in capturing value from innovation: evidence from Xerox Corporation’s technology spin-off companies. Ind Corp Change 11(3):529–555. doi: 10.1093/icc/11.3.529 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clauß T, Laudien SM, Daxböck B (2014) Service-dominant logic and the business model concept: toward a conceptual integration. Int J Entrepreneursh Innov Manag 18(4):266–288. doi: 10.1504/IJEIM.2014.064209 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Comes S, Berniker L (2008) Business model innovation. In: Pantaleo D, Pal N (eds) From Strategy to Execution. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 65–86. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-71880-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Copani G (2014) Machine tool industry: beyond tradition? In: Lay G (ed) Servitization in Industry. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 109–130. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-06935-7 Google Scholar
  23. Cortimiglia MN, Ghezzi A, Frank AG (2015) Business model innovation and strategy making nexus: evidence from a cross-industry mixed-methods study. R&D Manag (Early View). doi: 10.1111/radm.12113 Google Scholar
  24. DaSilva CM, Trkman P (2014) Business model: what it is and what it is not. Long Range Plan 47(6):379–389. doi: 10.1016/j.lrp.2013.08.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. David PA (1985) Clio and the economics of QWERTY. Am Econ Rev 75(2):332–337Google Scholar
  26. Day GS (1994) The capabilities of market-driven organizations. J Mark 58(4):37–52. doi: 10.2307/1251915 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Day GS (2000) Managing market relationships. J Acad Mark Sci 28(1):24–30. doi: 10.1177/0092070300281003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Demil B, Lecocq X (2010) Business model evolution: in search of dynamic consistency. Long Range Plan 43(2):227–246. doi: 10.1016/j.lrp.2010.02.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Demil B, Lecocq X, Ricart JE, Zott C (2015) Introduction to the SEJ special issue on business models: business models within the domain of strategic entrepreneurship. Strateg Entrepreneurship J 9(1):1–11. doi: 10.1002/sej.1194 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dmitriev V, Simmons G, Truong Y, Palmer M, Schneckenberg D (2014) An exploration of business model development in the commercialization of technology innovations. R&D Manag 44(3):306–321. doi: 10.1111/radm.12066 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dobusch L, Kapeller J (2013) Striking new paths: theory and method in path dependence research. Schmalenbach Bus Rev 65(Jul):288–311Google Scholar
  32. Dosi G (1982) Technological paradigms and technological trajectories: a suggested interpretation of the determinants and directions of technical change. Res Policy 11(3):147–162. doi: 10.1016/0048-7333(82)90016-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Doz YL, Kosonen M (2010) Embedding strategic agility: a leadership agenda for accelerating business model renewal. Long Range Plan 43(2):370–382. doi: 10.1016/j.lrp.2009.07.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Eisenhardt KM (1989) Building theories from case study research. Acad Manag Rev 14(4):532–550. doi: 10.5465/AMR.1989.4308385 Google Scholar
  35. Eisenhardt KM, Graebner ME (2007) Theory building from cases: opportunities and challenges. Acad Manag J 50(1):25–32. doi: 10.5465/AMJ.2007.24160888 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fang E, Palmatier RW, Steenkamp JBE (2008) Effect of service transition strategies on firm value. J Mark 72(5):1–14. doi: 10.1509/jmkg.72.5.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fischer T, Gebauer H, Gregory M, Ren G, Fleisch E (2010) Exploitation or exploration in service business development?: insights from a dynamic capabilities perspective. J Serv Manag 21(5):591–624. doi: 10.1108/09564231011079066 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Frankenberger K, Weiblen T, Gassmann O (2013) Network configuration, customer centricity, and performance of open business models: a solution provider perspective. Ind Mark Manage 42(5):671–682. doi: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2013.05.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Garud R, Kumaraswamy A, Karnoe P (2010) Path dependence or path creation? J Manage Stud 47(4):760–774. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.2009.00914.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gavetti G, Levinthal D (2000) Looking forward and looking backward: cognitive and experiential search. Adm Sci Q 45(1):113–137. doi: 10.2307/2666981 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gebauer H (2009) An attention-based view on service orientation in the business strategy of manufacturing companies. J Manag Psychol 24(1):79–98. doi: 10.1108/02683940910922555 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gebauer H, Fleisch E (2007) An investigation of the relationship between behavioral processes, motivation, investments in the service business and service revenue. Ind Mark Manage 36(3):337–348. doi: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2005.09.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gebauer H, Friedli T (2005) Behavioral implications of the transition process from products to services. J Bus Indus Mark 20(2):70–78. doi: 10.1108/08858620510583669 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gebauer H, Fleisch E, Friedli T (2005) Overcoming the service paradox in manufacturing companies. Eur Manag J 23(1):14–26. doi: 10.1016/j.emj.2004.12.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gebauer H, Paiola M, Edvardsson B (2010) Service business development in small and medium capital goods manufacturing companies. Manag Serv Qual 20(2):123–139. doi: 10.1108/09604521011027561 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. George G, Bock AJ (2011) The business model in practice and its implications for entrepreneurship research. Entrep Theory Pract 35(1):83–111. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6520.2010.00424.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gibbert M, Ruigrok W, Wicki B (2008) What passes as a rigorous case study? Strateg Manag J 29(13):1465–1474. doi: 10.1002/smj.722 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gioia DA, Corley KG, Hamilton AL (2013) Seeking qualitative rigor in inductive research notes on the Gioia methodology. Organ Res Methods 16(1):15–31. doi: 10.1177/1094428112452151 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Glaser BG (1992) Basics of Grounded Theory Analysis. Sociology Press, Mill ValleyGoogle Scholar
  50. Glaser BG, Strauss AL (1967) The discovery of grounded theory: strategies for qualitative research. Aldine, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. Golden BR (1992) The past is the past—or is it? The use of retrospective accounts as indicators of past strategy. Acad Manag J 35(4):848–860. doi: 10.2307/256318 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gotsch M, Hipp C, Erceg PJ, Weidner N (2014) The impact of servitization on key competences and qualification profiles in the machine building industry. In: Lay G (ed) Servitization in Industry. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 315–330. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-06935-7 Google Scholar
  53. Grönroos C (1990) Service management: a management focus for service competition. Int J Serv Ind Manag 1(1):6–14. doi: 10.1108/09564239010139125 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Grönroos C, Ojasalo K (2004) Service productivity: towards a conceptualization of the transformation of inputs into economic results in services. J Bus Res 57(4):414–423. doi: 10.1016/S0148-2963(02)00275-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hakanen T, Kansola M, Valkokari K (2014) Acquiring customer knowledge to enhance servitization of industrial companies. In: Lay G (ed) Servitization in Industry. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 191–209. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-06935-7 Google Scholar
  56. Huber GP, Power DJ (1985) Retrospective reports of strategic-level managers: guidelines for increasing their accuracy. Strateg Manag J 6(2):171–180. doi: 10.1002/smj.4250060206 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. IBM Global Business Services (2006) Expanding the innovation horizon: the global CEO study 2006. Accessed 30 November 2014
  58. Jaakkola E, Hakanen T (2013) Value co-creation in solution networks. Ind Mark Manage 42(1):47–58. doi: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2012.11.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kastalli IV, Van Looy B, Neely A (2013) Steering manufacturing firms towards service business model innovation. Calif Manag Rev 56(1):100–123. doi: 10.1525/cmr.2013.56.1.100 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Katz ML, Shapiro C (1985) Network externalities, competition, and compatibility. Am Econ Rev 75(3):424–440Google Scholar
  61. Khanagha S, Volberda H, Oshri I (2014) Business model renewal and ambidexterity: structural alteration and strategy formation process during transition to a Cloud business model. R&D Manag 44(3):322–340. doi: 10.1111/radm.12070 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kindström D (2010) Towards a service-based business model—key aspects for future competitive advantage. Eur Manag J 28(6):479–490. doi: 10.1016/j.emj.2010.07.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kindström D, Kowalkowski C, Sandberg E (2013) Enabling service innovation: a dynamic capabilities approach. J Bus Res 66(8):1063–1073. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2012.03.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Koch J (2008) Strategic paths and media management—a path dependency analysis of the German newspaper branch of high quality journalism. Schmalenbach Bus Rev 60(Jan):50–73Google Scholar
  65. Koch J (2011) Inscribed strategies: exploring the organizational nature of strategic lock-in. Organ Stud 32(3):337–363. doi: 10.1177/0170840610397486 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kowalkowski C, Kindström D, Alejandro TB, Brege S, Biggemann S (2012) Service infusion as agile incrementalism in action. J Bus Res 65(6):765–772. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2010.12.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kowalkowski C, Witell L, Gustafsson A (2013) Any way goes: identifying value constellations for service infusion in SMEs. Ind Mark Manage 42(1):18–30. doi: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2012.11.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kumar N, Stern LW, Anderson JC (1993) Conducting interorganizational research using key informants. Acad Manag J 36(6):1633–1651. doi: 10.2307/256824 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Langley A (1999) Strategies for theorizing from process data. Acad Manag Rev 24(4):691–710. doi: 10.5465/AMR.1999.2553248 Google Scholar
  70. Lerch C (2014) Servitization as an innovation process: identifying the need for change. In: Lay G (ed) Servitization in Industry. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 179–189. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-06935-7 Google Scholar
  71. Lindgardt Z, Reeves M, Stalk G. Deimler M (2009) Business model innovation: when the game gets tough change the game, The Boston Consulting Group. Accessed 30 November 2014
  72. Lumpkin GT, Dess GG (1996) Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Acad Manag Rev 21(1):135–172. doi: 10.5465/AMR.1996.9602161568 Google Scholar
  73. Lusch RF, Vargo SL, O’Brien M (2007) Competing through service: insights from service-dominant logic. J Retail 83(1):5–18. doi: 10.1016/j.jretai.2006.10.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Magretta J (2002) Why business models matter. Harvard Bus Rev 80(5):86–92Google Scholar
  75. Maitland E, Sammartino A (2014) Decision making and uncertainty: the role of heuristics and experience in assessing a politically hazardous environment. Strategic Manag J (Early View). doi: 10.1002/smj.2297 Google Scholar
  76. Markides G (2006) Disruptive innovation: in the need for better theory. J Prod Innov Manage 23(1):19–25. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5885.2005.00177.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Markides C, Charitou CD (2004) Competing with dual business models: a contingency approach. Acad Manag Executive 18(3):22–36. doi: 10.5465/AME.2004.1477616 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mathieu V (2001) Product services: from a service supporting the product to a service supporting the client. J Bus Indus Mark 16(1):39–61. doi: 10.1108/08858620110364873 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Matthyssens P, Vandenbempt K (2008) Moving from basic offerings to value-added solutions: strategies, barriers and alignment. Ind Mark Manage 37(3):316–328. doi: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2007.07.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Matthyssens P, Vandenbempt K, Berghman L (2006) Value innovation in business markets: breaking the industry recipe. Ind Mark Manage 35(6):751–761. doi: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2005.05.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. McGrath RG (2010) Business models: a discovery driven approach. Long Range Plan 43(2):247–261. doi: 10.1016/j.lrp.2009.07.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mezger F (2014) Toward a capability-based conceptualization of business model innovation: insights from an explorative study. R&D Manag 44(5):429–449. doi: 10.1111/radm.12076 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mitchell D, Coles C (2003) The ultimate competitive advantage of continuing business model innovation. J Bus Strateg 24(5):15–21. doi: 10.1108/02756660310504924 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Morris M, Schindehutte M, Allen J (2005) The entrepreneur’s business model: toward a unified perspective. J Bus Res 58(6):726–735. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2003.11.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Neely A (2008) Exploring the financial consequences of the servitization of manufacturing. Oper Manag Res 1(2):103–118. doi: 10.1007/s12063-009-0015-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nelson RR, Winter SG (1982) An evolutionary theory of economic change. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  87. Neu WA, Brown SW (2005) Forming successful business-to-business services in goods-dominant firms. J Serv Res 8(1):3–17. doi: 10.1177/1094670505276619 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ng I, Parry G, Smith L, Maull R, Briscoe G (2012) Transitioning from a goods-dominant to a service-dominant logic: visualising the value proposition of Rolls-Royce. J Serv Manag 23(3):416–439. doi: 10.1108/09564231211248480 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. North DC (1990) Institutions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Institutional change and economic performanceGoogle Scholar
  90. Oliva R, Kallenberg R (2003) Managing the transition from products to services. Int J Serv Ind Manag 14(2):160–172. doi: 10.1108/09564230310474138 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Orum AM, Feagin JR, Sjoberg G (1991) The nature of the case study. In: Feagin JR, Orum AM, Sjoberg G (eds) A case for case study. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, pp 1–26Google Scholar
  92. Osterwalder A, Pigneur Y, Tucci CL (2005) Clarifying business models: origins, present, and future of the concept. Commun Assoc Inf Syst 16(1):1–25Google Scholar
  93. Priem RL (2007) A consumer perspective on value creation. Acad Manag Rev 32(1):219–235. doi: 10.5465/AMR.2007.23464055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ramirez R (1999) Value co-production: intellectual origins and implications for practice and research. Strateg Manag J 20(1):49–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Salonen A (2011) Service transition strategies of industrial manufacturers. Ind Mark Manage 40(5):683–690. doi: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2011.05.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schneider S, Spieth P (2013) Business model innovation: towards an integrated future research agenda. International Journal of Innovation Management 17(01): 1340001-1–1340001-34. doi: 10.1142/S136391961340001X
  97. Schreyögg G, Kliesch-Eberl M (2007) How dynamic can organizational capabilities be? Towards a dual-process model of capability dynamization. Strateg Manag J 28(9):913–933. doi: 10.1002/smj.613 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schreyögg G, Sydow J (2011) Organizational path dependence: a process view. Organ Stud 32(3):321–335. doi: 10.1177/0170840610397481 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schumpeter JA (1934) The theory of economic development: an inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest, and the business cycle. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  100. Singh K, Yip G (2000) Strategic lessons from the Asian crisis. Long Range Plan 33(5):706–729. doi: 10.1016/S0024-6301(00)00078-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Smith WK, Binns A, Tushman ML (2010) Complex business models: managing strategic paradoxes simultaneously. Long Range Plan 43(2):448–461. doi: 10.1016/j.lrp.2009.12.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Snihur Y, Zott C (2013) Legitimacy without imitation: how to achieve robust business model, Paper presented at the 35th DRUID Celebration Conference 2013, Barcelona, Spain, June 17-19. Accessed 30 November 2014
  103. Sosna M, Trevinyo-Rodríguez RN, Velamuri SR (2010) Business model innovation through trial-and-error learning: the Naturhouse case. Long Range Plan 43(2):383–407. doi: 10.1016/j.lrp.2010.02.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Spieth P, Schneckenberg D, Ricart JE (2014) Business model innovation–state of the art and future challenges for the field. R&D Manag 44(3):237–247. doi: 10.1111/radm.12071 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Storbacka K, Windahl C, Nenonen S, Salonen A (2013) Solution business models: transformation along four continua. Ind Mark Manage 42(5):705–716. doi: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2013.05.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sydow J, Schreyögg G, Koch J (2009) Organizational path dependence: opening the black box. Acad Manag Rev 34(4):689–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Teece DJ (2010) Business models, business strategy and innovation. Long Range Plan 43(2):172–194. doi: 10.1016/j.lrp.2009.07.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Trochim WMK (1989) Outcome pattern matching and program theory. Eval Prog Plan 12(4):355–366. doi: 10.1016/0149-7189(89)90052-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ulaga W, Loveland JM (2014) Transitioning from product to service-led growth in manufacturing firms: emergent challenges in selecting and managing the industrial sales force. Ind Mark Manage 43(1):113–125. doi: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2013.08.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ulaga W, Reinartz WJ (2011) Hybrid offerings: how manufacturing firms combine goods and services successfully. J Mark 75(6):5–23. doi: 10.1509/jm.09.0395 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. van Driel H, Dolfsma W (2009) Path dependence, initial conditions, and routines in organizations: the Toyota production system re-examined. J Organ Change Manag 22(1):49–72. doi: 10.1108/09534810910933906 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Vargo SL, Lusch RF (2004) Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing. J Mark 68(1):1–17. doi: 10.1509/jmkg. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Vergne JP, Durand R (2010) The missing link between the theory and empirics of path dependence: conceptual clarification, testability issue, and methodological implications. J Manage Stud 47(4):736–759. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.2009.00913.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Vergne JP, Durand R (2011) The path of most persistence: an evolutionary perspective on path dependence and dynamic capabilities. Organ Stud 32(3):365–382. doi: 10.1177/0170840610397485 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wan WP, Yiu DW (2009) From crisis to opportunity: environmental jolt, corporate acquisitions, and firm performance. Strateg Manag J 30(7):791–801. doi: 10.1002/smj.744 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Welch C, Piekkari R, Plakoyiannaki E, Paavilainen-Mäntymäki E (2011) Theorising from case studies: towards a pluralist future for international business research. J Int Bus Stud 42(5):740–762. doi: 10.1057/jibs.2010.55 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wernerfelt B (1984) A resource-based view of the firm. Strateg Manag J 5(2):171–180. doi: 10.1002/smj.4250050207 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Williamson OE (1975) Markets and hierarchies, analysis and antitrust implications: a study in the economics of internal organization. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  119. Wright LL, Lane HW, Beamish PW (1988) International management research: lessons from the field. Int Stud Manag Organ 18(3):55–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Yin RK (2009) Case study research: design and methods, 4th edn. Sage Publications, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  121. Zott C, Amit R (2010) Business model design: an activity system perspective. Long Range Plan 43(2):216–226. doi: 10.1016/j.lrp.2009.07.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zott C, Amit R (2013) The business model: a theoretically anchored robust construct for strategic analysis. Strateg Organ 11(4):403–411. doi: 10.1177/1476127013510466 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zott C, Amit R, Massa L (2011) The business model: recent developments and future research. J Manag 37(4):1019–1042. doi: 10.1177/0149206311406265 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Law, Social Sciences, and Economics, Chair in Strategic ManagementUniversity of ErfurtErfurtGermany
  2. 2.Faculty of Economics and Management, Chair in Business Administration, esp. International ManagementOtto von Guericke University MagdeburgMagdeburgGermany

Personalised recommendations