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Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaft

, Volume 79, Issue 3, pp 303–334 | Cite as

Die Auswirkungen von Neid auf individuelle Leistungen: Ergebnisse einer Panelanalyse

  • Sascha L. SchmidtEmail author
  • Benno Torgler
  • Bruno S. Frey
Forschung

Zusammenfassung

Relative Einkommensunterschiede lösen innerhalb einer Referenzgruppe oftmals Neid aus und beeinflussen damit die individuelle Leistungsbereitschaft. In der ökonomischen Forschung ist bislang dieser Zusammenhang wenig untersucht worden. Unser Beitrag analysiert den Einfluss von relativen Einkommensunterschieden auf die Leistung von Fußballprofis der deutschen Bundesliga. Insgesamt werden 1040 Spieler über einen Zeitraum von 8 Spielzeiten zwischen 1995 und 2004 untersucht. Relative Einkommensunterschiede zwischen Mannschaftskollegen erweisen sich als entscheidender Einfluss auf die individuelle Leistung der Spieler. Eine Verschlechterung in der relativen Einkommensposition vermindert ceteris paribus die individuelle Leistungsbereitschaft. Eine höhere Einkommensungleichheit verstärkt solche positionsbedingten Externalitäten.

Schlüsselwörter

Relatives Einkommen positionsbedingte Externalitäten Neid Leistung 

The impact of envy on individual performance: Findings from a panel analysis

Abstract

Relative income differences are likely to lead to envy within a reference group. Envy in turn influences social behavior and individual performance. While positional concerns are apparent in daily life, empirical evidence is rare in the economic literature. This paper investigates the impact of the relative income position on individuals’ performance or productivity. As „performance“ is difficult to measure we turn to soccer players whose performance has been well documented. The broad sample covers eight seasons of the German premier soccer league (Bundesliga) between 1995 and 2004, and includes 1040 players, a salary proxy and several performance variables. The results show that player performance is strongly affected by relative income position. A disadvantage in the relative income position reduces productivity. The larger the income differences within a team, the stronger are the effects of positional concern. Team composition also significantly affects behaviour.

Keywords

Relative income Positional concerns Envy Performance Income inequality 

JEL-Classification

D31 D63 L83 

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Copyright information

© Gabler Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sascha L. Schmidt
    • 1
    Email author
  • Benno Torgler
    • 2
  • Bruno S. Frey
    • 3
  1. 1.Lehrstuhl Strategy & Organization, European Business School, Oestrich-Winkel, Geschäftsführer a-connect (deutschland) gmbh, Research Fellow bei CREMAWiesbadenDeutschland
  2. 2.School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology, Research Fellow bei CREMA, Executive Board Mitglied des National Centre for Econometric ResearchBrisbane QLDAustralien
  3. 3.Institut für empirische Wirtschaftsforschung, Universität Zürich, Schweiz Gastprofessor an der ETH, Zürich, Forschungsdirektor bei CREMAZürichSchweiz

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