Contemporary Islam

, 3:275 | Cite as

Danish cartoon controversy in the Chinese context: transnational Islam and public visibility of Hong Kong Muslims

Article

Abstract

Placed within the wider Chinese context of Muslims’ reticent response to the publication of twelve cartoons by Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten, this paper attempts to understand the transnational impact of global Muslim protests against the Danish cartoons, which resulted in the re-emergence of Hong Kong Muslims in the public sphere. By discussing the genesis of the public appearance of Hong Kong Muslims in response to the Danish Cartoon affair, this paper argues that the controversy has resulted in a heightened sense of Islam in the Chinese public sphere. Framing the emerging Islamic voices in a context where the Chinese government has a coherent rationale towards religious policy in its domestic politics, and its unprecedented political experiment of ‘One country, two systems’, this article points out the contrasting public visibility and global connection of Muslims in Hong Kong and the Mainland.

Keywords

Islam Hong Kong China Public sphere Danish Cartoon controversy Protest 

References

  1. Al-Azmeh, A., & Fokas, E. (eds). (2007). Islam and Europe: Diversity, identity and influence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Alatas, S. F. (2007). Introduction. The Muslim World, 97(3), 373–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allès, E., Chérif-Chebbi, L., & Halfon, C.-H. (2003). Chinese Islam: Unity and fragmentation. Religion, State & Society, 31(1), 7–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arshad, M. (2006). ‘Violence condemned’. South China Morning Post, 7. February.Google Scholar
  5. Bajunid, O. F. (2001). Islam and civil society in Southeast Asia: A review. In N. Mitsuo, S. Siddique & O. F. Bajunid (Eds.), Islam & civil society in Southeast Asia (pp. 177–202). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.Google Scholar
  6. Blanchard, B. (2006). ‘Religion, politics mix awkwardly for Chinese Muslims’. Reuters, 22. May.Google Scholar
  7. Chan, F., & Ng, K. C. (2006). ‘Relief as protest passes peacefully’. South China Morning Post, 18. February.Google Scholar
  8. Chiu, A. (2006). ‘Protesters make their peace over Cartoon fury’, The Standard, 27. February.Google Scholar
  9. Crawford, B. (2006a). ‘Peace of action’. South China Morning Post, 10. February.Google Scholar
  10. Crawford, B. (2006b). ‘Hong Kong Muslims to hold public protests condemning prophet cartoons’. South China Morning Post, 9. February.Google Scholar
  11. Crawford, B., Shamdasani, R., & Wong, B. (2006). ‘Police Veto Nathan road protest by Muslims’. South China Morning Post, 10. February.Google Scholar
  12. Dirlik, A. (2008). Socialism in China: A historical overview. In K. Louie (Ed.), The Cambridge companion to modern Chinese culture (pp. 155–172). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Esposito, J. L., & Burgat, F. (eds). (2003). Modernising Islam: Religion in the public sphere in the Middle East and Europe. London: Hurst.Google Scholar
  14. Esposito, J. L., Voll, J. O., & Baker, O. (eds). (2008). Asian Islam in the 21st century. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Frankel, J. D. (2008). “Apoliticization”: One facet of Chinese Islam. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 28(3), 421–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Göle, N. (2002). Islam in public: New visibilities and new imaginaries. Public Culture, 14(1), 173–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gladney, D. C. (1994). Salman Rushdie in China: Religion, ethnicity and state definition in the people’s republic. In C. F. Keyes, L. Kendall & H. Hardacre (Eds.), Asian visions of authority: Religion and the modern states of East and Southeast Asia (pp. 255–278). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  18. Gladney, D. C. (2003). Islam in China: Accommodation or separatism? The China Quarterly, 174, 451–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gladney, D. C. (2004). Dislocating China: Reflections on Muslims, minorities and other subaltern objects. London: Hurst.Google Scholar
  20. Haddad, Y. Y. (ed). (2002). Muslims in the West: From sojourners to citizens. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Hefner, R. W. (2000). Civil Islam: Muslims and democratization in Indonesia. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Hefner, R. W. (2001). Public Islam and the problem of democratization. Sociology of Religion, 62(4), 491–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hefner, R. W. (2009). Making modern Muslims: The politics of Islamic education in Southeast Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar
  24. Hellyer, H. A. (2007). Visions and visualizations: negotiating space for European Muslims. Contemporary Islam, 1(1), 23–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Heung, V. (2006). Recognizing the emotional and behavioral needs of ethnic minority students in Hong Kong. Preventing School Failure, 50(2), 29–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ho, W. Y. (2001). A historical analysis of Islamic community development in Hong Kong: Struggle for recognition in the post-colonial era. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 21(1), 63–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ho, W. Y. (2002). Contested mosques in Hong Kong. ISIM Review, 10, 14.Google Scholar
  28. Ho, W. Y. (2004). Transnational Islam in Nanyang history from the colonial to postcolonial era: Life historical accounts of a Southeast Asian Muslim family diaspora. The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 21(1), 1–25.Google Scholar
  29. Ho, W. Y. (2008). Teaching Islam to educate multiethnic & multicultural literacy: Seeking alternative discourse & global pedagogies of in the Chinese context. Asian Ethnicity, 9(2), 77–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hong Kong SAR Government. (2007). Hong Kong 2007. Hong Kong: Information Services Department of the Hong Kong SAR Government.Google Scholar
  31. Ku, H. B. (2006). Body, dress and cultural exclusion: experiences of Pakistani women in ‘global’ Hong Kong. Asian Ethnicity, 7(3), 285–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kurlantzick, J. (2003). China’s Dubious role in the war in terror. Current History, December: 432–438.Google Scholar
  33. Lam, W.-M. (2004). Understanding the political culture of Hong Kong: The paradox of activism and depoliticization. New York: Sharpe.Google Scholar
  34. Lam, W.-L. W. (2007). Chinks in the armour of the Hu Jintao administration: Can a harmonious society emerge in the absence of political reform? China Perspectives, 3, 4–11.Google Scholar
  35. Levey, G. B., & Modood, T. (2009). Liberal democracy, multicultural citizenship and the Danish cartoon affair the Danish cartoon affair: Free speech, racism, Islamism and integration. In G. B. Levey & T. Modood (Eds.), Secularism, religion and multicultural citizenship (pp. 216–242). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Lo, M. W. (2006). ‘Ta Shan Zhi Shi/Hui Gu Manhua Xiedu Fengbol’ (‘The stone of other mountains/review of cartoon blasphemy controversy’), Wilderness Magazine, 140. 1 April.Google Scholar
  37. Lo, K. C. (2007). Invisible neighbors: Racial minorities and the Hong Kong Chinese community. Today Literary Magazine, 51–68. Summer.Google Scholar
  38. Lu, M. S. (2006). ‘Gang Hua Hui Jiaotu Hanxu Ai Huoping’ (‘Hong Kong Chinese Muslims, low-profile and peace-loving’). Ming Pao Daily News, 16, A18.Google Scholar
  39. Ma, R. (2006). ‘50,000 expected at cartoon rally’. South China Morning Post, 12. February.Google Scholar
  40. Ma, N. (2007a). Political development in Hong Kong: State, political society and civil society. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Ma, N. (2007b). State-press relationship in Post-1997 Hong Kong: constant negotiation amidst self-restraint. China Quarterly, 192, 949–970.Google Scholar
  42. Mandaville, P. (2001). Transnational Muslim politics: Reimagining the Umma. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Mandaville, P. (2005). Sufis and Salafis: The political discourse of Transnational Islam. In R. W. Hefner (Ed.), Remaking Muslim politics (pp. 302–325). Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Mandaville, P. (2007). Global Political Islam. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  45. Metcalf, B. D. (ed). (1996). Making Muslim space in North America and Europe. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  46. Meyer, D. R. (2000). Hong Kong as Global metropolis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Mitchell, J. (2006a). ‘Police baffled by rumors of second cartoon protest’. The Standard, 16. February.Google Scholar
  48. Mitchell, J. (2006b). ‘Muslim march goes peacefully’. The Standard, 18. February.Google Scholar
  49. Murphy, C. (2004). Invisible in Islam. Hong Kong Standard, 4, A16–18.Google Scholar
  50. Noor, F. A., Sikand, Y., & Bruinessen, M. V. (2009). The Madrasa in Asia: Political activism and transnational linkages. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Patten, C. (1999). East and West. London: Pan.Google Scholar
  52. Patten, C. (2003). ‘Democracy doesn’t flow from the barrel of a gun’. Foreign Policy. September/October.Google Scholar
  53. Pepper, S. (2002). Hong Kong and the reconstruction of China’s political order. In M. K. Chan & A. Y. So (Eds.), Crisis and Transformation in China’s Hong Kong (pp. 20–66). New York: Sharpe.Google Scholar
  54. Pepper, S. (2008). Keeping democracy at Bay: Hong Kong and the challenge of Chinese political reform. Lanham: Rowman & Litttlefield.Google Scholar
  55. Poon, K. (2008). The political future of Hong Kong: Democracy within communist China. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Ramadan, T. (2004). Western Muslims and the future of Islam. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Ramadan, T. (2006). The Danish cartoons, free speech and civic responsibility. New Perspectives Quarterly, 23(2), 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Reid, A., & Gilsenan, M. (eds). (2007). Islamic Legitimacy in a plural Asia. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  59. Roy, O. (2003). Euro–Islam: the Jihad within? The National Interest, 71, 63–73.Google Scholar
  60. Roy, O. (2005). A clash of cultures or a debate on Europe’s values. ISIM Review, 15, 6–7.Google Scholar
  61. Roy, O. (2007). Secularism confronts Islam. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Said, E. W. (2001). We all swim together. New Statesman, 14(678), 20.Google Scholar
  63. Salvatore, A., & Eickelman, D. F. (eds). (2004). Public Islam and the common good. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  64. Shamdasani, R. (2006). ‘Police approve cartoon protest by HK Muslims’. South China Morning Post, 15. February.Google Scholar
  65. Tayob, A. (2006). Caricatures of the Prophet: European integration. ISIM Review, 17, 5.Google Scholar
  66. Turner, B. T. (2008). Introduction: The price of piety—a special issue of contemporary Islam on piety, politics and Islam. Contemporary Islam, 2(1), 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tyebkhan, Z. (2006).‘Responsible freedom’. South China Morning Post, 10. February.Google Scholar
  68. Wang, S., & Wong, S. T. A. (2006). ‘Wei Shi Mol Musillin Ru Ci Fennu?: Qing Yi Hu Xiang Zunchong Ti Dai Wen Ming Chong Tu Lun’ (‘Why Muslims are so angry?: Mutual understanding substitutes clash of civilizations’), Yi Guang Pinglun (Commentary from Light of Islam), 17. February.Google Scholar
  69. Wang, H. (2007). “Linking up with the international track”: What’s in a slogan? The China Quarterly, 189, 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Werbner, P. (2002). Imagined diasporas among Manchester Muslims: The public performance of Pakistani transnational identity politics. Oxford: James Currey.Google Scholar
  71. Wong, S. T. A. (2006a). ‘Musilin Hu Zhi Bei Bian Yan Hua’ (‘Muslims Are More Than Marginalized’). Qing Xin Zhen Yan (Fruits for the Week), 11. August.Google Scholar
  72. Wong, S. T. A. (2006b). ‘Wei Shi Mol Musillin Ru Ci Fennu?’ (‘Why Muslims Are So Angry?’). Hong Kong Economic Journal, 18 February, p. P07.Google Scholar
  73. Wong, S. T. A. (2006c). ‘Ru Sheng Manhua Fengbol Gang Mumin Ying Fansi’ (‘Controversy of Cartoon Blasphemy: Hong Kong Muslims Should Reflect’). Qing Xin Zhen Yan (Fruits for the Week), 3 March.Google Scholar
  74. Yardley, J. (2006). ‘A spectator’s role of China’s Muslims’. The New York Times. 19 February.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied Social StudiesCity University of Hong KongKowloon TongHong Kong
  2. 2.Centre for Asia Pacific Social Transformation Studies (CAPSTRANS)University of WollongongWollongongAustralia

Personalised recommendations