Scrambling for contact: The determinants of inter-NGO cooperation in non-Western countries
- 898 Downloads
When do non-governmental organizations (NGOs) cooperate with each other? Even with much touting of the positive effects of inter-NGO cooperation on humanitarian outcomes, the extant literature offers us few insights into the determinants of this cooperation, especially in a cross-national framework. Drawing on both the current NGO literature and the larger cross-disciplinary literature on inter-organizational cooperation, I argue that both trust and opportunity are needed for inter-NGO cooperation. Trust in other organizations is highly dependent on governance structures within the state. Similarly, in the uncertain situation of humanitarian disasters and development work in non-Western states, security concerns and a lack of a coordinating leadership body can limit the opportunities of NGOs to collaborate. The presence of humanitarian state interveners can act to mitigate these concerns and provide NGOs with more opportunities to collaborate. Using a novel measure of NGO to NGO cooperation in non-Western countries, empirical results of this project largely support the hypotheses derived from this trust and opportunity framework.
KeywordsNGO Cooperation Civil conflict Intervention
- 1st March. (2012). Ngo 2.0: Low Cost, Open Source and Creative Cooperation. January 25, http://www.volontariperlosviluppo.it/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1857:1st-march-ngo-20-low-cost-open-source-and-creative-cooperation&catid=160:corsionline-2012&Itemid=200144. Accessed 1 Aug 2012.
- Arndt, C., & Oman, C. (2006). Uses and abuses of governance indicators. OECD Publishers.Google Scholar
- Boli, J., & Thomas, G. (1999). INGOs and the Organization of World Culture. In Boli & Thomas (Eds.), Constructing world culture: International non-governmental organizations since 1875 (pp. 107–123). Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Bundervoet, T., Verwimp, P., & Akresh, R. (2009). Health and civil war in Rural Burundi. Journal of Human Resources, 44, 536.Google Scholar
- Buzard, N. (2000). Information-sharing and coordination among NGOs working in the refugee camps of Ngara and Kibondo, Tanzania, 1994 – 1998. http://web.mit.edu/cis/www/migration/pubs/mellon/2_infoshare.pdf. Accessed 1 Aug 2012.
- Cheibub, J. A., Gandhi, J., & Vreeland, J. R. (2010). Democracy and dictatorship revisited. Public Choice, 143(1–2), 67–101.Google Scholar
- De Kloe, M. (2011). Inter-organisational cooperation of Haitian NGOs in education. http://www.hiidunia.com/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2012/01/Development-Project-Haiti-2011.pdf. Accessed 1 Aug 2012.
- DeMars, W. E. (2005). NGOs and transnational networks: Wild cards in world politics. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
- De Reu, S. (2005). The impact of international NGOs and Civil Society Organisations on the Peace Process in Burundi. Journal of Humanitarian Assistance. http://sites.tufts.edu/jha/files/2011/04/a173.pdf. Accessed 30 Sept 2013.
- Ebers, M. (1997). The formation of inter-organizational networks. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Ell, D. (2008). “Haiti’s Catch-22: An Interview with Patrick Elie.” Dominion Internet Edition. February 27, 2008. http://www.dominionpaper.ca/articles/1736. Accessed 10 Oct 2013.
- EM-DAT (2007). The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database, Universite Catholique De Louvain.Google Scholar
- Evan, W.M. (1965). Toward a theory of inter-organizational relations. Management Science. 11(10). Series B Managerial: B217–B230Google Scholar
- FASID (2008). FASID Seminar on Cooperation among NGOs/NPOs, Official Aid Agencies, and Private Corporations towards Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development in Developing Countries. http://www.fasid.or.jp/chosa/kokusai/pdf/minute_undp.pdf. Accessed 1 Aug 2012.
- Gjigas, O. (1997). A directory of environmental nongovernmental organizations in Central and Eastern Europe (3rd ed.). Hungary: REC Publications.Google Scholar
- Hadenius, A., & Teorell, J. (2005). Assessing alternative indices of democracy. Committee on Concepts and Methods Working Paper Series (August).Google Scholar
- Humedica (2010). Report from Léogane: Remarkable Cooperation among NGOs http://www.humedica.org/articles/2010/report-from-leogane/index_eng.html. Accessed 1 Aug 2012.
- ICRG (2012). International Country Risk Guide. http://www.prsgroup.com/ICRG.aspx. Accessed 1 Aug 2012.
- Jervis, R. (1989). The logic of images in international relations. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
- Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A., & Mastruzzi, M. (2009). Governance Matters VIII: Aggregate and individua l governance indicators, 1996-2008. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4978.Google Scholar
- Keck, M. E., & Sikkink, K. (1998). Activists beyond borders: Advocacy networks in international politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
- Kisangani, E.F., & Pickering, J. (2008). International military intervention, 1989-2005. Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research, Data Collection No 21282, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
- Kristoff, M., & Panerelli, L. (2010). Haiti: A Republic of NGOs? US Institute of Peace, Peace Brief. http://www.usip.org/publications/haiti-republic-ngos. Accessed 1 Aug 2012.
- Lendman, S. (2012). ICRC Supports imperialism for profit. July 18, 2012. http://www.opednews.com/articles/ICRC-Supports-Imperialism-by-Stephen-Lendman-120718-990.html. Accessed 1 Aug 2012.
- Long, J. S., & Freese, J. (2006). Regression models for categorical dependent variables using stata (2nd ed.). College Station: Stata Press.Google Scholar
- MacFarlane, N. (2000). Politics and humanitarian action. War and Humanitarianism Project.Google Scholar
- Marwil, N. (2012). “Joint Ventures for Good.” April 10, 2012. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/noah-marwil/ngo-cooperation_b_1412901.html. Accessed 1 Aug 2012.
- Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. D., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. The Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709–734.Google Scholar
- Murdie, A. (2009). Signals across borders: The conditional impact of INGOs.Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Emory University, Department of Political Science.Google Scholar
- Murdie, A. (2013). The ties that bind: A network analysis of human rights international nongovernmental organizations. British Journal of Political Science. Forthcoming.Google Scholar
- Murdie, A., & Hicks, A. (2013). Can international nongovernmental organizations boost government services? The case of health. International Organization, 67(3), 541–573.Google Scholar
- Oliver, C. (1990). Determinants of interorganizational relationships: integration and future directions. The Academy of Management Review, 15(2), 241–265.Google Scholar
- Peck, E., & Kemmet, L. (2011). Kansas National Guard Agribusiness development in Afghanistan. Interagency Journal, 2, 38–39.Google Scholar
- Phillips, N., Lawrence, T. B., & Hardy, C. (2000). Inter-organizational collaboration and the dynamics of institutional fields. Journal of Management Studies, 37(1), 23–43.Google Scholar
- Prakash, A., & Gugerty, M. K. (Eds.). (2010). Advocacy organizations and collective action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Sanyal, B. (1998). The myth of development from below. Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning, Annual Conference, Pasadena, CA, November 1998.Google Scholar
- SCRN (2010). NGO urged to avoid service duplication. June 28, 2010. http://www.bakhitaradio.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=671:ngo-urged-to-avoid-service-duplication&catid=42:local-news&Itemid=67. Accessed 1 Aug 2012.
- Stroup, S. (2012). Borders among activists: International NGO in the United States, Britain, and France. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
- Svedin, L. M. (2009). Organizational cooperation in crises. Surrey: Ashgate Publishers.Google Scholar
- Tchouakeau, L. N., Maldonado, E., Zhao, K., Robinson, H., Maitland, C., & Tapia, A. (2011). Exploring barriers to coordination between humanitarian NGOs: a comparative case study of two NGO’s information technology coordination bodies. International Journal of Information Systems and Social Change, 2(2), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Teorell, J., Charron, N., Dahlberg, S., Holmberg, S., Rothstein, B., Sundin, P., et al. (2013). The quality of government dataset, version 15May13. University of Gothenburg: The Quality of Government Institute. http://www.qog.pol.gu.se.
- Tierney, M. J., Nielson, D. J., Hawkins, D. G., Roberts, J. T., Findley, M. G., Powers, R. M., et al. (2011). More dollars than sense: Refining our knowledge of development finance using AidData. World Development, 39(11), 1891–1906.Google Scholar
- UIA (2008/2009). Yearbook of international organizations (45 ed., Vols. 1-4). Union of International Associations.Google Scholar
- UN HCR (2007). Annual Report the Humanitarian/Residence Coordinator on the Use of CERF Grants. ochaonline.un.org
- UN ISDR (2007). Global Network of NGOs for Community Resilience to Disasters. Draft 3.0. www.unisdr.org/2008/partner-netw/ngos/…/draft-ToR-3-010607.doc. Accessed 1 Aug 2012.
- UNIFEM (2006). Mapping of women’s NGOs and their work in gender based violence in Macedonia. http://www.unifem.sk/uploads/doc/Mapping.pdf.
- Van de Ven, A. H., & Ring, P. S. (2006). Relying on trust in cooperative inter-organizational relationships. In Backmann and Zaheer (Eds), Handbook of trust research (pp 144-164). Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
- Weiss, T., & Gordenker, L. (Eds.). (1996). NGOs, the UN, and global governance. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
- Willetts, P. (2002). What is a non-governmental organization?. Output from the Research Project on Civil Society Networks in Global Governance. http://www.staff.city.ac.uk/p.willetts/CS-NTWKS/NGO-ART.HTM. Accessed 6 Aug 2013.
- Yalçınkaya, H. (2013). The nongovernmental organizations–military security collaboration mechanism: Afghanistan NGO Safety Office. Armed Forces & Society, 39(3), 489–510.Google Scholar