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Mycological Progress

, Volume 18, Issue 1–2, pp 107–117 | Cite as

Fusarium udum revisited: a common, but poorly understood member of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex

  • Ludwig H. PfenningEmail author
  • Maruzanete Pereira de Melo
  • Marileide Moreira Costa
  • Ailton Reis
  • Cleia Santos Cabral
  • Cristiano S. Lima
  • Lucas M. Abreu
  • Sarah S. Costa
Original Article
  • 354 Downloads

Abstract

Fusarium udum is the causal agent of a wilt disease on pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in tropical regions. This species shares morphological characteristics with F. oxysporum, leading to misidentification when the diagnosis is solely based on morphological markers. The sexual stage of this fungus was observed on stems of Cajanus in India and was formally described as Gibberella indica. In Brazil, a wilt disease is reported on Crotalaria, but the etiological agent has not been identified correctly so far. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the causal agent of a wilt on Crotalaria belongs to the same species pathogenic to C. cajan. Strains obtained from diseased Crotalaria spp. were characterized through molecular phylogeny of TEF, TUB and RPB2, laboratory crosses, morphological markers, and pathogenicity tests. Strains from Crotalaria from Brazil formed a well-supported clade with F. udum strains from Crotalaria and Cajanus from other countries. Strains from Brazil intercrossed among themselves and also with others from all geographic regions, and formed fertile perithecia, defining a distinct mating population inside the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex. One strain obtained from Cajanus cajan in India is indicated as epitype, and female-fertile tester strains of both mating types were selected for the identification of field isolates through sexual crosses. These results confirm that the species associated with wilt disease on Crotalaria and Cajanus is F. udum. Wilt symptoms caused by F. udum in Cr. ochroleuca are described and illustrated.

Keywords

Biological species Cajanus cajan Multigene phylogeny Wilt disease 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is dedicated to the memory of Walter Gams, who introduced the first author to the secrets of the genus Fusarium, when he could not even imagine the importance that this act would have in his further professional life. Thanks are due to Edson Luis Rezende for skillful technical assistance and to Dr. Ivan Pereira for preparing the perithecial sections. We also thank Gilson Soares, Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, São Luiz, Brazil, Antonio Logrieco, ISPA, Bari, Italy and Ludwig M. Niessen, TU München, Germany, for providing field isolates and reference strains.

Funding information

This research was supported in part by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico CNPq (Proc. 406335/2013-5). Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior CAPES provided a fellowship to MMC and SSC, and CNPq to MPM. LHP acknowledges a grant given by CNPq (Proc. 308291/2013-1).

Supplementary material

11557_2018_1446_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (24 kb)
Fig. S1 One of four most parsimonious phylogenetic trees inferred from partial TEF1 sequences showing the phylogenetic relationships of Fusarium udum with other species in Fusarium fujikuroi species complex. Bootstrap values (1000 replications) are shown at the internodes and branch lengths are indicated by the scale at the bottom. Tree length = 169 steps, confidence interval [CI] = 0.810 and retention index [RI] = 0.850. Strains from Brazil are indicated in bold. Ex-type and ex-epitype strains are indicated with T and ET, respectively. Tester strains are indicated by M1 and M2, M1 = Mating type 1, M2 = Mating type 2 (PDF 23 kb)
11557_2018_1446_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (25 kb)
Fig. S2 One of 10 most parsimonious phylogenetic trees inferred from partial TUB sequences showing the phylogenetic relationships of Fusarium udum with other species in Fusarium fujikuroi species complex. Bootstrap values (1000 replications) are shown at the internodes and branch lengths are indicated by the scale at the bottom. Tree length = 86 steps, confidence interval [CI] = 0.926 and retention index [RI] = 0.969. Strains from Brazil are indicated in bold. Ex-type and ex-epitype strains are indicated with T and ET, respectively. Tester strains are indicated by M1 and M2, M1 = Mating type 1, M2 = Mating type 2 (PDF 24 kb)
11557_2018_1446_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (398 kb)
Fig. S3 One of five most parsimonious phylogenetic trees inferred from partial RPB2 sequences showing the phylogenetic relationships of Fusarium udum with other species in Fusarium fujikuroi species complex. Bootstrap values (1000 replications) are shown at the internodes and branch lengths are indicated by the scale at the bottom. Tree length = 239 steps, confidence interval [CI] = 0.720 and retention index [RI] = 0.820. Strains from Brazil are indicated in bold. Ex-type and ex-epitype strains are indicated with T and ET, respectively. Tester strains are indicated by M1 and M2, M1 = Mating type 1, M2 = Mating type 2 (PDF 398 kb)

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Copyright information

© German Mycological Society and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ludwig H. Pfenning
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maruzanete Pereira de Melo
    • 2
  • Marileide Moreira Costa
    • 1
  • Ailton Reis
    • 3
  • Cleia Santos Cabral
    • 4
  • Cristiano S. Lima
    • 5
  • Lucas M. Abreu
    • 6
  • Sarah S. Costa
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de FitopatologiaUniversidade Federal de LavrasLavrasBrazil
  2. 2.Campus JurutiUniversidade Federal do Oeste do ParáJurutiBrazil
  3. 3.Embrapa HortaliçasBrasíliaBrazil
  4. 4.Departamento de FitopatologiaUniversidade de BrasíliaBrasíliaBrazil
  5. 5.Departamento de FitotecniaUniversidade Federal do CearaFortalezaBrazil
  6. 6.Departamento de FitopatologiaUniversidade Federal de ViçosaViçosaBrazil

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