Genetic diversity and host range of powdery mildews on Papaveraceae

Abstract

Because of the strong morphological similarity of the powdery mildew fungi that infect papaveraceous hosts, a total of 39 samples were studied to reveal the phylogeny and host range of these fungi. ITS and 28S sequence analyses revealed that the isolates identified earlier as Erysiphe cruciferarum on papaveraceous hosts represent distinct lineages and differ from that of E. cruciferarum sensu stricto on brassicaceous hosts. The taxonomic status of the anamorph infecting Eschscholzia californica was revised, and therefore, a new species name, Erysiphe eschscholziae, is proposed. The taxonomic position of the Pseudoidium anamorphs infecting Glaucium flavum, Meconopsis cambrica, Papaver dubium, and Stylophorum diphyllum remain unclear. This study revealed that Erysiphe macleayae exhibits a specific host range different from that of E. cruciferarum, the common pathogen of papaveraceous hosts. Although E. macleayae occurred naturally on Macleaya cordata, Macleaya microcarpa, M. cambrica, and Chelidonium majus only, our inoculation tests revealed that the fungus was capable of infecting Argemone grandiflora, Glaucium corniculatum, Papaver rhoeas, and Papaver somniferum, indicating that these plant species may also be taken into account as potential hosts. Erysiphe cruciferarum originating from P. somniferum was not able to infect A. grandiflora, C. majus, E. californica, M. cordata, and P. rhoeas. The emergence of E. macleayae on M. microcarpa is reported here for the first time from the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The appearance of chasmothecia of E. macleayae on C. majus in Slovakia was reported, as well. Erysiphe cruciferarum was identified on G. corniculatum and reported here for the first time from Slovakia.

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Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the curators of the herbaria G, HMAS, KR, PRM, SAV, and SOMF for the loans of the specimens. Susumu Takamatsu (Mie University, Tsu, Japan) and Viorica Iacob (University of Applied Life Sciences and Environment, Iasi, Romania) are thanked for kindly providing some of the powdery mildew samples used in this work. Alick Henrici and Brian M. Spooner (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Surrey, UK) are thanked for information on British record of Eschscholzia powdery mildew. We are much obliged to the curators of Botanical Garden in Teplice, Medicinal Herbs Centre of Faculty of Medicine and Botanical Garden of Faculty of Science of the Masaryk University in Brno (Czech Republic), Botanical Garden of University of Latvia in Riga (Latvia), and Botanical Garden of Parma, University of Parma, Parma (Italy) for providing Papaveraceae seeds. We are grateful to Ildikó Karsai and Levente Kiss (Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences) for their support, Scott LaGreca (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA) for kindly correcting the text, and the anonymous reviewers for valuable comments on the manuscript. Tünde Jankovics’s and Alexandra Pintye’s contribution was partly supported by the János Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA) and a grant of the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA, PD-112468). This study was also supported by the Science and Technology Assistance Agency under the contract No. APVV-0248-10 (for Martin Pastirčák).

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Correspondence to Katarína Pastirčáková.

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Erysiphe eschscholziae Pastirč. & Jankovics

Katarína Pastirčáková and Tünde Jankovics contributed equally to this work.

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Pastirčáková, K., Jankovics, T., Komáromi, J. et al. Genetic diversity and host range of powdery mildews on Papaveraceae. Mycol Progress 15, 36 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-016-1178-8

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Keywords

  • Erysiphaceae
  • Eschscholzia
  • Macleaya
  • ITS
  • 28S nrDNA
  • Morphology