Skip to main content
Log in

Identity of Agaricus brevipes Bull. (Melanoleuca brevipes, Tricholomataceae, Basidiomycota)

  • Original Article
  • Published:
Mycological Progress Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Melanoleuca brevipes (basionym Agaricus brevipes) represents one of the most frequently identified Melanoleuca species. However, there are several concepts of this taxon, and thus the identity of this species is unclear. This species was studied, based on the original table by Bulliard, macromorphological and micromorphological characters, and DNA sequences of recent collections and herbarium specimens. DNA sequences of ITS, RPB2 and tef1 markers revealed that specimens identified as M. brevipes belong to three species (M. humilis, M. grammopodia, and M. malenconii), where M. humilis or M. malenconii may resemble Bulliard’s original species. According to these results, Agaricus brevipes is therefore considered a nomen dubium. A lectotype of M. grammopodia is proposed herein.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Antonín V, Sedlák P, Tomšovský M (2013) Taxonomy and phylogeny of European Gymnopus subsection Levipedes (Basidiomycota, Omphalotaceae). Persoonia 31:179–187. doi:10.3767/003158513X674043

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Antonín V, Rimóczi I, Benedek L, Papp V, Szarkándi JG, Bálint D, Nagy LG, Papp T, Ďuriška O, Tomšovský M (2014) Melanoleuca juliannae (Basidiomycota, Tricholomataceae), a new species from subgen. Urticocystis. Phytotaxa 170(1):13–23. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.170.2.2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boekhout T (1988) Notulae ad floram agaricinam neerlandicam – XVI. New taxa, new combinations in Melanoleuca Pat. and notes on rare species in the Netherlands. Persoonia 13:397–431

    Google Scholar 

  • Boekhout T (1999) Melanoleuca Pat. In: Bas C, Kuyper TW, Noordeloos ME, Vellinga EC (eds) Flora agaricina neerlandica, vol 4. AA Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 153–165

    Google Scholar 

  • Bon M (1978) Tricholomataceae de France et d’Europe occidentale (sous-famille Leucopaxilloideae (Singer) Bon). Doc Mycol 9(33):1–79

    Google Scholar 

  • Bon M (1990a) Les Tricholomes et ressemblant. Doc Mycol Mém Hors Sér 2:1–163

    Google Scholar 

  • Bon M (1990b) Novitates – Combinaisons nouvelles et validations. Doc Mycol 20(78):37–40

    Google Scholar 

  • Bon M (1990c) Novitates – Taxons nouveaux et validations. Doc Mycol 20(79):57–62

    Google Scholar 

  • Bresadola J (1928) Iconographia mycologica, vol 3. A. Ingegnoli, Mediolani

  • Bresinsky A, Stangl J (1977) Beträge zur Revision M. Britzelmayrs “Hymenomyceten aus Südbayern” 13. Die Gattung Melanoleuca unter besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Arten in der Umgebung von Augsburg. Z Pilzk 43:145–173

    Google Scholar 

  • Bulliard P (1791) Herbier de la France, vol 11. Didot, Debure, Belin, Paris

  • Caroti V, Consiglio G, Contu M, Fontenla R, Gottardi M, Para R (2006) Contributio alla conoscenza dei macromiceti dell’Emilia-Romagna. XXII. Genere Melanoleuca. Boll AMER 22(67):9–39

    Google Scholar 

  • Darriba D, Taboada GL, Doallo R, Posada D (2012) jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nat Methods 9(8):772

    Article  PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dereeper A, Guignon V, Blanc G, Audic S, Buffet S, Chevenet F, Dufayard JF, Guindon S, Lefort V, Lescot M, Claverie JM, Gascuel O (2008) robust phylogenetic analysis for the non-specialist. Nucleic Acids Res 36(suppl 2):W465–W469. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn180

    Article  PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Esteve-Raventós F, Llistosella Vidal J, Ortega Diaz A (2007) Setas de la Peninsula Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Ediciones Jaguar, Madrid

    Google Scholar 

  • Fontenla R, Para R (2013) Observations on Melanoleuca. On some of Bresadola’s Tricholoma referable to Melanoleuca. Bresadoliana 1(2010):35–62

    Google Scholar 

  • Fontenla R, Gottardi M, Lavorato C, Para R (2003) Osservazioni sul genere Melanoleuca: Tre specie descritte da Malençon & Bertault. Rev Micol 46:337–350

    Google Scholar 

  • Fries EM (1821) Systema mycologicum. E. Mavritius, Gryphiswaldiae

  • Gillman LS, Miller OK Jr (1977) A study of the boreal, alpine and arctic species of Melanoleuca. Mycologia 69:927–951

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gröger F (2006) Bestimmungsschlüssel für Blätterpilze und Röhrlinge in Europa, Teil 1. Regensb Mykol Schriften 13:1–638

    Google Scholar 

  • Huelsenbeck JP, Ronquist F (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19:1572–1574. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btg180

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Katoh K, Standley DM (2013) MAFFT multiple sequence alignment software version 7: improvements in performance and usability. Mol Biol Evol 30:772–780. doi:10.1093/molbev/mst010

    Article  PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Konrad P, Maublanc A (1924–1933) Icones selectae fungorum, vol 3. Paul Lechevalier, Paris

  • Kornerup A, Wanscher JH (1983) Methuen handbook of colour, 3rd edn. Eyre Methuen, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Kühner R (1978) Agaricales de la zone alpine. Genre Melanoleuca Pat. Bull Soc Linn Lyon 47(1):12–52

    Google Scholar 

  • Malençon G, Bertault R (1975) Flore des champignons supérieurs du Maroc. Tome II. Trav Inst Sci Chérifien 33:1–540

    Google Scholar 

  • Matheny PB (2005) Improving phylogenetic inference of mushrooms with RPB1 and RPB2 nucleotide sequences (Inocybe; Agaricales). Mol Phylog Evol 35(1):1–20. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.11.014

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Métrod G (1942) Les Tricholomes. Rev Mycol Suppl 7:89–96

    Google Scholar 

  • Métrod G (1948) Essai sur le genre Melanoleuca Patouillard emend. Bull Soc Mycol France 64:141–165

    Google Scholar 

  • Nikolcheva LG, Bärlocher F (2004) Taxon-specific fungal primers reveal unexpectedly high diversity during leaf decomposition in a stream. Mycol Progr 3:41–49. doi:10.1007/s11557-006-0075-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Paoletti B, Papetti C, Zovadelli C (2008) Escursioni di studio alla Fattoria didattica “Catena Rossa”, Cagnaghe di Sarezzo V.T. – II. Boll Circ Micol G Carini 56:1–32

    Google Scholar 

  • Quélet L (1888) Flore mycologique de la France et des pays limitrophes. O Doin, Paris

    Google Scholar 

  • Rambaut A, Drummond AJ (2009) Tracer version 1.5 [computer program].

  • Ricken A (1915) Die Blätterpilze. TO Weigel, Leipzig

    Google Scholar 

  • Sánchez-García M, Cifuentes-Blanco J, Matheny PB (2013) Revisión taxonómica del género Melanoleuca en México y descripción de especies nuevas. Rev Mex Biodiv 84:S111–S127. doi:10.7550/rmb.31569

  • Singer R (1935) Étude systématique sur les Melanoleuca d’Europe et clé des espèces observes en Catalogne. Cavanillesia 7:122–132

    Google Scholar 

  • Singer R (1943) Das system der Agaricales. III. Ann Mycol 41:1–189

    Google Scholar 

  • Swofford DL (2003) PAUP*. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (* and other methods). Version 4. Sinauer, Sunderland

    Google Scholar 

  • Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S (2013) MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol 30:2725–2729. doi:10.1093/molbev/mst197

    Article  PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Thiers B (2014, continuously updated) Index Herbariorum: a global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium. Accessed: 3 July 2015

  • Tomšovský M (2012) Delimitation of an almost forgotten species Spongipellis litschaueri (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) and its taxonomic position within the genus. Mycol Progr 11:415–424. doi:10.1007/s11557-011-0756-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vesterholt J (2008) Munkehat (Melanoleuca) i Danmark. Svampe 57:18–29

    Google Scholar 

  • Vesterholt J (2012) Melanoleuca Pat. In: Knudsen H, Vesterholt J (eds) Funga Nordica. Agaricoid, boletoid, clavarioid, cyphelloid and gastroid genera. Nordsvamp, Copenhagen, pp 347–352

    Google Scholar 

  • Vizzini A, Para R, Fontenla R, Ghignone S, Ercole E (2011) A preliminary ITS phylogeny of Melanoleuca (Agaricales) with special reference to European taxa. Mycotaxon 118:361–381. doi:10.5248/118.361

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vizzini A, Ercole E, Fontenla R, Para R (2012) Osservazioni sul genere Melanoleuca. M. humilis e M. sublanipes. Micol Veget Med 27:93–108

    Google Scholar 

  • Watling R, Turnbull E (1998) Cantharellaceae, Gomphaceae and amyloid-spored and xeruloid members of Tricholomataceae (excl. Mycena). In: Henderson DM, Orton PD, Watling R (eds) British Fungus Flora Agarics and Boleti 8:1–189

  • White TJ, Bruns TD, Lee SB, Taylor JW (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. Academic, New York

    Book  Google Scholar 

Download references


The studies of the first author were enabled by the support provided to the Moravian Museum by the Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic as part of its long-term conceptual development programme for research institutions (DKRVO, ref. MK000094862). The second author thanks the Comenius University Grant Agency, project no. UK/231/2014, and the National Scholarship Programme of the Slovak Republic for support provided. The work of the last author was supported by the European Social Fund and the state budget of the Czech Republic, Project Indicators of trees vitality Reg. No. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0265. We also thank the curators of the LIP and W herbaria for loans of the type and other herbarium specimens, and J. Borovička (Prague, Czech Republic) and R. Courtecuisse (Lille, France) for providing their collections. The authors also wish to thank R. Fontenla (Macerata, Italy) and R. Para (Pesaro, Italy) for valuable information on some type specimens, J.W. Jongepier (Veselí nad Moravou, Czech Republic) for linguistic improvement, and L. Ilkovics (Masaryk University, Medical Faculty, Department of Histology and Embryology, Brno, Czech Republic) for providing the SEM microphotographs of the basidiospores.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Vladimír Antonín.

Additional information

Section Editor: Zhu-Liang Yang

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Antonín, V., Ďuriška, O., Jančovičová, S. et al. Identity of Agaricus brevipes Bull. (Melanoleuca brevipes, Tricholomataceae, Basidiomycota). Mycol Progress 14, 107 (2015).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: