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Molecular phylogenetics and taxonomy in Psathyrellaceae (Agaricales) with focus on psathyrelloid species: introduction of three new genera and 18 new species

Abstract

Based on traditional morphology, sequence data, and phylogenetic analyses, 18 new species are here described: Coprinellus christianopolitanus, Coprinopsis musae, C. udicola, Psathyrella arenosa, P. carminei, P. fennoscandica, P. ichnusae, P. lilliputana, P. lyckebodensis, P. madida, P. rybergii, P. sabuletorum, P. scanica, P. siccophila, P. stridvallii, P. sublatispora, P. vesterholtii, and Typhrasa nanispora. Psathyrella hololanigera and P. tenera are reported as new to Europe and P. parva as new to the Nordic countries. A four-gene dataset on Psathyrellaceae were analyzed by Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian methods. Constraint analyses were performed to determine limits of /Psathyrella, and to evaluate whether the /Coprinellus, /cordisporus, and /gossypina clades could be regarded with confidence as monophyletic clades outside of the clade /Psathyrella. This was not unambiguously supported. Based on the phylogenetic results, Kauffmania is proposed as a monotypic genus for the species P. larga and Typhrasa for P. gossypina and the new described species T. nanispora. The genus Homophron is formally validated and three combinations are proposed: H. spadiceum, H. cernuum, and H. camptopodum. The genus Cystoagaricus Singer is emended and the following new combinations are proposed: C. hirtosquamulosus, C. squarrosiceps, C. olivaceogriseus, and C. silvestris. Neotypes have been selected for seven species described by Fries, and ITS sequence data for these were generated. The following new combinations are proposed: Coprinopsis canoceps, C. cineraria, C. melanthina, C. submicrospora, C. uliginicola, and Typhrasa gossypina. Brief comments are given to other species of interest. Psathyrella ornatispora were found not to belong in Psathyrellaceae. A key to 106 psathyrelloid species in Northern Europe is provided.

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Acknowledgments

The authors want to express their gratitude to several contributors of valuable material and for assistance of various kinds: Eef Arnolds, David Boertmann, Manfred Enderle, Guillaume Eyssartier, Tomas Hallingbäck, Sven-Åke Hanson, Anton Hausknecht, Stig Jacobsson, Thomas Laessøe, Karl-Henrik Larsson, Erik Ljungstrand, Erhard Ludwig, Andreas Melzer, Jens H. Petersen, Arne Ryberg, Laszlo Nagy, Svengunnar Ryman. To the curators of the following herbaria: AH, AMNH, B, BAFC, BR, C, CBM, CUP, E, F, G, GDGM, GH, H, K, L, LD, MICH, NY, NYS, O, PC, S, SGO, SZE, TAA, TROM, TURA, UPS, WAG-W, WBS, WU, XAL, ZT. Financial support was received from The Swedish Taxonomy Initiative, ArtDatabanken, SLU, Uppsala (EL)

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Correspondence to Ellen Larsson.

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Supplementary material S1

Additional specimens morphologically studied (DOC 476 kb)

Supplementary material S2

A key to the psathyrelloid species in Northern Europe (PDF 228 kb)

Supplementary material S3

Illustrations of the new described and identified species (PDF 1821 kb)

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Örstadius, L., Ryberg, M. & Larsson, E. Molecular phylogenetics and taxonomy in Psathyrellaceae (Agaricales) with focus on psathyrelloid species: introduction of three new genera and 18 new species. Mycol Progress 14, 25 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-015-1047-x

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Keywords

  • Homophron
  • Kauffmania
  • Typhrasa
  • Cystoagaricus
  • Molecular phylogenetics
  • Systematics
  • Taxonomy
  • Species diversity
  • Neotype, epitype