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Genetic variability among populations of Fusicladium species from different host trees and geographic locations in the USA

Abstract

Peach and almond scab caused by Venturia carpophila and pecan scab caused by Fusicladium effusum result in yield loss, downgrading of fruit, defoliation and subsequent decline of an orchard. To understand the levels of genetic diversity and divergence of pathogens from different hosts and locations 51 isolates were genotyped and analyzed using 10 RAPD and 5 UP-PCR markers, including 18 isolates of V. carpophila from peach trees in the southeastern United States, 12 isolates of V. carpophila from almond trees in California, and 21 isolates of F. effusum (a related species) from pecan trees in the southeastern United States. The combined marker results showed a low incidence of polymorphisms among the peach isolates (4.2 % of markers), but a higher incidence of polymorphisms among the almond isolates (42.0 %) and the pecan isolates (61.0 %). The Dice coefficient of similarity ranged from 0.932 to 1.000 for the peach V. carpophila isolates, 0.214 to 0.976 for the almond V. carpophila isolates, and 0.528 to 0.920 for the pecan F. effusum isolates. UPGMA bootstrap values indicated that UP-PCR data were slightly more robust and, based on the combined data, the UPGMA bootstrap analysis (1,000 runs) gave a high node value (100 %) differentiating all the isolates of V. carpophila from F. effusum and a moderate node value differentiating the peach and almond isolates of V. carpophila (68 %). The results suggest some divergence between the V. carpophila populations of almond trees in California and peach tree populations in the southeastern United States, and different levels of genetic diversity within the two populations.

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Acknowledgments

We appreciate the technical assistance of Minling Zhang and Wanda Evans for pathogen isolation and molecular work. We also appreciate the samples sent by Norman Lalancette (Rutgers University, NJ), Keith Yoder (Virginia Tech University), Guido Schnabel (Clemson University, SC), Kari Peter (Penn State University, PA), Nicole Gauttier (University of Kentucky), Tom Beckman (USDA-ARS, GA), Leigh-Ann Fall (University of Georgia), Mary Olmstead (University of Florida), and the pecan growers who allowed us access their orchards to collect samples of F. effusum.

This article reports the results of research only. Mention of a trademark or proprietary product is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the product by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and does not imply its approval to the exclusion of other products that may also be suitable.

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Correspondence to Chunxian Chen.

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Chen, C., Bock, C.H., Brannen, P.M. et al. Genetic variability among populations of Fusicladium species from different host trees and geographic locations in the USA. Mycol Progress 13, 1006 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-014-1006-y

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-014-1006-y

Keywords

  • Genetic diversity
  • Prunus
  • PCR
  • genetic polymorphisms
  • population genetics