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Three new Xylaria species from southwestern Europe


Three undescribed European species of Xylaria are recognized from new combinations of anamorphic and teleomorphic characters. Their phylogenetic affinities are revealed by a 5.8S/ITS nrDNA analysis. Two of them (X. karsticola and X. vasconica) appear closely related to X. hypoxylon sensu stricto. Xylaria cinerea is distributed in western Europe (France, Spain, United Kingdom) and the Canary Islands and appears closely related to a yet unnamed taxon from New Zealand. In addition to southwestern Europe, X. vasconica is also present in eastern USA. A specimen of X. hypoxylon from the US West Coast agreed with European material with regard to the teleomorph, but its cultures showed a different morphology. Xylaria arbuscula var. plenofissura is reported from a natural habitat on the European mainland for the first time, and the occurrence of this member of the X. arbuscula complex on the Canary Islands is confirmed.

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We are grateful to our colleagues, Jack D. Rogers, Yu-Ming Ju and Thomas Læssøe for providing specimens and for valuable discussions. Our thanks go to the curators of K, PDD, PH, TFC and WSP for sending us material on loan. Régis Courtecuisse is thanked for arranging the loan of specimens from PDD, for providing fresh material and for facilitating forays in the Caribbean. Markus Scholler (KR) is thanked for arranging the loan of X. subterranea from PH. We also wish to gratefully acknowledge the help of Monique Basley-Gallis, Françoise Candoussau, Enrique Rubio Dominguez, Marie Fournier, Michel Hairaud, Volker Kummer, Christian Lechat, Christophe Lécuru and Jean Mornand, for providing specimens, Beata Schmieschek (InterMed Discovery GmbH) and Susanne Bethke, for expert lab assistance, and Gerhard Rambold (Univ. Bayreuth) for valuable discussions and general support of our studies.

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Correspondence to Marc Stadler.

Additional information

Taxonomic novelties:

Xylaria cinerea J. Fournier & M. Stadler, sp. nov.;

Xylaria karsticola J. Fournier & M. Stadler, sp. nov.;

Xylaria vasconica J. Fournier & M. Stadler, sp. nov.

Electronic supplementary material

Other images of Xylaria spp. and corresponding descriptions are included as Electronic Supplementary data:

SI. 1

Photos of the late Jerome H. Miller’s “East Coast” and “West coast” Xylaria hypoxylon. Kindly provided by J. D. Rogers, who originally obtained them from E. Lutrell. (PDF 434 kb)

SI. 2

Illustration and morphological description of Xylaria cf. hypoxylon STMA10002 from US West Coast. (PDF 702 kb)

SI. 3

Illustration and morphological description of Xylaria cf. arbuscula STMA09152 and STMA09153 from Potsdam, Germany (comm. V. Kummer). (PDF 935 kb)

SI. 4

Illustration and morphological description of Xylaria subterranea (type specimen from PH) (PDF 76 kb)

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Fournier, J., Flessa, F., Peršoh, D. et al. Three new Xylaria species from southwestern Europe. Mycol Progress 10, 33–52 (2011).

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