Mycological Progress

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 305–308 | Cite as

Phylogeny of the pecan scab fungus Fusicladium effusum G. Winter based on the cytochrome b gene sequence

  • Murat Seyran
  • Claudia Nischwitz
  • Kippy J. Lewis
  • Ronald D. Gitaitis
  • Timothy B. Brenneman
  • Katherine L. StevensonEmail author
Short Communication


Pecan scab, caused by the fungus Fusicladium effusum, is the most devastating disease of pecan (Carya illinoinensis) trees and is responsible for the majority of disease management efforts applied to that crop. The taxonomy of the fungus changed several times in the last decade and most recently, using ITS nrDNA data and conventional taxonomic methods, the organism was renamed F. effusum. In our study, a conserved region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced from three isolates of F. effusum. The obtained sequences showed 95% nucleic acid and 100% amino acid homology (201–266 amino acids on exon 5 of the cytochrome b gene) with Venturia inaequalis (NCBI GenBank accession number AF047029). And in the maximum parsimony tree based on nucleotide sequences, F. effusum and V. inaequalis were clustered, with a 92% bootstrap value. The taxonomic classification of the pecan scab fungus was supported based on the cytochrome b region.


Venturia anamorph Carya Sequence analyses 



We acknowledge Bonnie Evans for technical assistance, and Sidney Law and Tim Varnadore for assistance in locating orchards. Financial support provided by E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company, Inc., United Phosphorus Inc., and the Georgia Agricultural Commodity Commission for Pecans is also appreciated.


  1. Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ (1990) Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 215:403–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Beck A, Ritschel AK, Schubert K, Braun U, Triebel D (2005) Phylogenetic relationships of the anamorphic genus Fusicladium s. lat. as inferred by ITS nrDNA data. Mycol Prog 4:111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bertrand PF (2002) Scab. In: Teviotdale BL, Michailides TJ, Pscheidt JW (eds) Compendium of nut crop diseases in temperate zones. APS, St. Paul, MN, USAGoogle Scholar
  4. Blanchette RA, Held BW, Jurgens JA, McNew DL, Harrington TC, Duncan SM, Farrell RL (2004) Wood-destroying soft rot fungi in the historic expedition huts of Antarctica. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:1328–1335CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Braun U, Crous PW, Dugan F, Groenewald JZ, de Hoog GS (2003) Phylogeny and taxonomy of Cladosporium-like hyphomycetes, including Davidiella gen. nov., the teleomorph of Cladosporium s. str. Mycol Prog 2:3–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crous PW, Schubert K, Braun U, de Hoog GS, Hocking AD, Shin HD, Groenewald JZ (2007a) Opportunistic, human-pathogenic species in the Herpotrichiellaceae are phenotypically similar to saprobic or phytopathogenic species in the Venturiaceae. Stud Mycol 58:185–217Google Scholar
  7. Crous PW, Braun U, Schubert K, Groenewald JZ (2007b) Delimiting Cladosporium from morphologically similar genera. Stud Mycol 58:33–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fahleson J, Hu Q, Dixelius C (2004) Phylogenetic analysis of Verticillium species based on nuclear and mitochondrial sequences. Arch Microbiol 181:435–442CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Gottwald TR (1982) Taxonomy of the pecan scab fungus Cladosporium caryigenum. Mycologia 74:382–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hall BG (2001) Phylogenetic trees made easy: a how-to manual for molecular biologists. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA, USAGoogle Scholar
  11. Partridge EC, Morgan-Jones G (2003) Notes on Hyphomycetes. xc. Fusicladosporium, a new genus for cladosporium-like anamorphs of Venturia, and the pecan scab-inducing fungus. Mycotaxon 85:357–370Google Scholar
  12. Schnabel G, Schnabel EL, Jones AL (1999) Characterization of ribosomal DNA from Venturia inaequalis and its phylogenetic relationship to rDNA from other tree-fruit Venturia species. Phytopathology 89:100–108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Schubert K, Braun U (2002) Fusicladium effusum. In: IMI Descriptions of fungi and bacteria 152. CAB International, Surrey, UKGoogle Scholar
  14. Schubert K, Ritschel A, Braun U (2003) A monograph of Fusicladium s. lat. (hyphomycetes). Schlechtendalia 9:1–132Google Scholar
  15. Swofford DL (2003) PAUP: Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (and other methods), version 4.0b 10. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA, USAGoogle Scholar
  16. Thompson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ (1994) CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22:4673–4680CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Yokoyama K, Wang L, Miyaji M, Nishimura K (2001) Identification, classification and phylogeny of the Aspergillus section Nigri inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. FEMS Microbiol Lett 200:241–246CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Zheng D, Köller W (1997) Characterization of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from Venturia inaequalis. Curr Genet 32:361–366CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© German Mycological Society and Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Murat Seyran
    • 1
    • 3
  • Claudia Nischwitz
    • 2
    • 3
  • Kippy J. Lewis
    • 3
  • Ronald D. Gitaitis
    • 3
  • Timothy B. Brenneman
    • 3
  • Katherine L. Stevenson
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of FerraraFerraraItaly
  2. 2.Department of Plant Sciences Division of Plant Pathology and MicrobiologyUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of GeorgiaTiftonUSA

Personalised recommendations