As a simple yet effective operation, frame deletion is widely used in video forgery. Many video forensic techniques have been developed to detect this manipulation. Some inter-frame continuity based methods are capable to detect frame deletion as well as locate the frame deletion points precisely. However, due to the simple principle, this kind of inter-frame continuity based methods are vulnerable to anti-forensic strategies. In this paper, we first put forward an inter-frame interpolation as an anti-forensic operation which is easy to realize. Then, to detect video frame deletion under anti-forensics, the new artifacts introduced by interpolation are analyzed, and we present a global and local joint feature to distinguish the interpolated frames and pristine frames. The feature overcomes the problem of weak residual in HEVC videos, and low dimension ensures the real-time detection. Experimental results show that the anti-forensic view we proposed needs to be considered in frame deletion forensics. In addition, the proposed global and local joint feature can detect frame deletion under anti-forensic operation effectively.
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This work was supported in part by the National Key Research and Development of China (2018YFC0807306), National NSF of China (61672090, 61532005), and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2018JBZ001).
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Yao, H., Ni, R. & Zhao, Y. An approach to detect video frame deletion under anti-forensics. J Real-Time Image Proc 16, 751–764 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11554-019-00865-y
- Video forensics
- Frame deletion
- Interpolated frames
- Compression artifacts