Rhinoplasty is one of the most common and challenging plastic surgery procedures. Facial analysis is a crucial step in planning. Utilizing three-dimensional (3D) model of a patient’s face is an emerging way of performing facial analysis. This paper evaluates the agreement and reliability of facial measurements taken using a web app, located at digitized-rhinoplasty.com, that utilizes 3D models of the patient’s face.
Eleven measurements were calculated on 16 human subjects. Three methods of measurements were performed: direct measurements on human subjects’ faces, measurements on 2D photographs, and measurements on 3D models of face scans. The Bland–Altman plot is used for testing the agreement between the web app and the well-known Blender 3D modeling software. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability was calculated and compared for 2D and 3D methods using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) method. The statistical analysis methods were checked for the normality and homoscedasticity assumptions.
The results indicate that the web app and Blender software show agreement within 95% confidence limits. The web app performs well in intra-rater and inter-rater reliability statistical analysis. The web app’s reliability scores are consistently better than facial analysis software which was found highly reliable in a previous study. We also compare the methods of measurements in terms of time, ease of use, and cost.
The utilization of 3D computer modeling for facial analysis has its advantages and started to become more common due to recent advances in technology. The web app utilizes 3D face scans for pre-operative planning and post-operative evaluation of facial surgeries. The web app performs well in agreement and inter-/intra-reliability analysis and performs consistently better than software that works utilizing 2D photographs. The web app provides accurate, repeatable, affordable, and fast facial measurements for facial analysis when compared to direct and 2D methods.
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We would like to thank Elif Topsakal for her help in statistical analysis. We would like to thank Julian Maniquis for helping with the agreement analysis using the Blender. We thank all the volunteers who took part in this study. We also would like to thank the reviewers of IJCARS for their valuable and constructive feedback on the manuscript.
This study is not funded by any grant.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The study was approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of Demiroglu Bilim University, Istanbul, Turkey (Decision number 03.03.2020/2020.05.03). Written informed consent for performing the direct measurements, 2D photography, 3D scans, data analysis, and publication of associated results was obtained beforehand from all volunteers.
In accordance with the provisions of the General Data Protection Regulation (EU) 2016/679, all subjects showed in the images and the proprietaries of all the personal data showed in this article gave their written consent to conduct its publication. All authors have participated in (a) conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of the data; (b) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and (c) approval of the final version. This manuscript has not been submitted to, nor is under review at, another journal or other publishing venue. The authors have no affiliation with any organization with a direct or indirect financial interest in the subject matter discussed in the manuscript.
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Topsakal, O., Akbaş, M.İ., Smith, B.S. et al. Evaluating the agreement and reliability of a web-based facial analysis tool for rhinoplasty. Int J CARS 16, 1381–1391 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11548-021-02423-z
- Surgery planning
- Facial analysis
- Facial measurements
- 3D model
- Intraclass correlation coefficient